Terminology. The names "Wales" and "Welsh" are modern descendants of the Anglo-Saxon word wealh, a descendant of the Proto-Germanic word "Walhaz", which was derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to inhabitants of the Western Roman Empire.
- 475,000 (Includes those of mixed ancestry)
- 1.75–1.81 million
- Geographic Distribution
- Counting System
The language of the Welsh developed from the language of Britons. The emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and clearly identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it had happened by as late as the 9th century, with a watershed moment being that proposed by linguist Kenneth H. Jackson, the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD,which split the South Western British from direct overland contact with the Welsh. Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh. The period immediately following the language's emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh, followed by the Old Welsh period – which is generally considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century. The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from then until th...
Welsh has been spoken continuously in Wales throughout recorded history, but by 1911 it had become a minority language, spoken by 43.5 percent of the population. While this decline continued over the following decades, the language did not die out. By the start of the 21st century, numbers began to increase once more, at least partly as a result of the increase in Welsh-medium education. The 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey showed that 21.7 percent of the population of Wales spoke Welsh, compar...
Although Welsh is a minority language, support for it grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from 1925 and Welsh Language Societyfrom 1962. The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages be treated equally in the public sector, as far as is reasonable and practicable. Each public body is required to prepare for approval a Welsh Langu...
The decade around 1840 was a period of great social upheaval in Wales, manifested in the Chartist movement. In 1839, 20,000 people marched on Newport, resulting in a riot when 20 people were killed by soldiers defending the Westgate Hotel, and the Rebecca Riots where tollbooths on turnpikeswere systematically destroyed. This unrest brought the state of education in Wales to the attention of the English establishment since social reformers of the time considered education as a means of dealing...
Use in Professional Engineering
When conducting applicants' professional reviews for Chartered Engineer status, the Institution of Engineering and Technologyaccepts applications in the Welsh Language and will conduct face-to-face interviews in the Welsh Language if requested to do so. It should be noted, however, that one of the requirements for Chartered Engineer is also to be able to communicate effectively in the English Language.
Welsh supplements its core Brittonic vocabulary (words such as wy "egg", carreg "stone"), with hundreds of word lemmas borrowed from Latin, such as (ffenestr "window" < Latin fenestra, gwin "wine" < Latin vinum). It also borrows words from English, such as (silff "shelf", giât"gate").
The phonology of Welsh includes a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages. The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ], the voiceless nasals [m̥], [n̥] and [ŋ̊], and the voiceless alveolar trill [r̥] are distinctive features of the Welsh language. Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, and the word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitchthan the stressed syllable.
Welsh is written in a Latin alphabet of 29 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as separate letters for collation: 1. a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, j, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y In contrast to English practice, "w" and "y" are considered vowel letters in Welsh along with "a", "e", "i", "o" and "u". The letter "j" was not used traditionally, but is now used in many everyday words borrowed from English, like jam, jôc (joke) and garej (garage). The letters "k", "q", "v", "x", and "z" are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt and sero. The letter "k" was in common use until the 16th century, but was dropped at the time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh, as William Salesburyexplained: "C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth". This change was not popular at the time. The most common diacritic is the...
Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations and of so-called "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but they are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings and other methods to indicate the plural, and two endings to indicate the singular (technically the singulative) of some nouns. In spoken Welsh, verbal features are indicated primarily by the use of auxiliary verbs rather than by the inflection of the main verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of the main verb is usual.
The canonical word order in Welsh is verb–subject–object(VSO). Colloquial Welsh inclines very strongly towards the use of auxiliaries with its verbs, as in English. The present tense is constructed with bod ("to be") as an auxiliary verb, with the main verb appearing as a verbnoun (used in a way loosely equivalent to an infinitive) after the particle yn: 1. Mae Siân yn mynd i Lanelli 2. Siân is going to Llanelli. There, mae is a third-person singular present indicative form of bod, and mynd is the verbnoun meaning "to go". The imperfect is constructed in a similar manner, as are the periphrastic forms of the future and conditionaltenses. In the preterite, future and conditional mood tenses, there are inflected forms of all verbs, which are used in the written language. However, speech now more commonly uses the verbnoun together with an inflected form of gwneud ("do"), so "I went" can be Mi es i or Mi wnes i fynd ("I did go"). Miis an example of a preverbal particle; such particles...
The traditional counting system used in the Welsh language is vigesimal, i.e. it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally "sixty-ten") to 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally "four twenty nineteen"). Welsh numbers from 11 to 14 are "x on ten" (e.g. un ar ddeg: 11), 16 to 19 are "x on fifteen" (e.g. un ar bymtheg: 16), though 18 is deunaw, "two nines"; numbers from 21 to 39 are "1–19 on twenty"(e.g. deg ar hugain: 30), 40 is deugain "two twenties", 60 is trigain"three twenties", etc. This form continues to be used, especially by older people, and it is obligatory in certain circumstances (such as telling the time, and in ordinal numbers). There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving the time, ages, and dates (it features no ordinal numbers). This system originated in Patagonian Welsh and was subsequently introduced to Wales in the 1940s. Whereas 39 in the vigesimal system is pedwar ar...
Currently, there is no standardised or definitive form of the Welsh language, with significant differences in dialectmarked in pronunciation, vocabulary and in points of grammar. For example: consider the question "Do you want a cuppa [a cup of tea]?" In Gwynedd this would typically be Dach chi isio panad? while in the south of Dyfed one would be more likely to hear Ych chi'n moyn dishgled? (though in other parts of the South one would not be surprised to hear Ych chi isie paned? as well, among other possibilities). An example of a pronunciation difference is the tendency in some southern dialects to palatalise the letter "s", e.g. mis (Welsh for 'month'), usually pronounced IPA: [miːs], but as IPA: [miːʃ] in parts of the south. This normally occurs next to a high front vowel like /i/, although exceptions include the pronunciation of sut "how" as IPA: [ʃʊd] in the southern dialects (compared with northern IPA: [sɨt]).
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The settlers first made contact with the local Tehuelche people almost a year after their arrival. After some difficult early years of suspicion and some violence, the Tehuelche people established cordial relationships with the Welsh and helped the settlement survive the early food shortages.
Jun 19, 2019 · In 2016, an analysis of the geography of Welsh surnames commissioned by the Welsh Government found that 718,000 people (nearly 35% of the Welsh population) have a family name of Welsh origin, compared with 5.3% in the rest of the United Kingdom, 4.7% in New Zealand, 4.1% in Australia, and 3.8% in the United States, with an estimated 16.3 ...
People have lived in Wales for at least 29,000 years. The Romans first entered Wales in 43 AD, and took it around 77 AD. The word 'Wales' Edit. The English words Wales and Welsh come from the old Germanic word Walh (plural: Walha). Walh itself came from a Celtic tribe, called the Volcae by the Romans.
The 2011 Census showed 562,016 people, 19.0% of the Welsh population, were able to speak Welsh, the decrease from the 20.8% returned in the 2001 census.   Although monoglotism in young children continues, life-long monoglotism in Welsh is recognised to be the thing of the past.
Ian David Karslake Watkins (born 30 July 1977) is a Welsh convicted sex offender and former singer, songwriter, and musician. He achieved prominence as the co-founder, lead vocalist, and lyricist of the rock band Lostprophets. In 2013, he was sentenced to 29 years of imprisonment for multiple sexual offences, including the sexual assault of ...
- Language Mutations
- Formal and Informal Welsh
- How to Say Things in Welsh
- The Media
- The Welsh Alphabet
Welsh has mutations. Mutations are when a sound (in speech) or a letter (in writing) changes at the start of a word. An example is the Welsh word "gwneud", which in English means "to do", and "dod", which means "to come" "dewch i mewn" which means "come in". Sometimes the word changes from "gwneud" to "wneud", and from "dod" to "ddod". These sounds (in speech) or letters (in writing) changes also occur within, and at the end, of words, although the simplified classification found in ordinary books does not mention this.
In Welsh, there is formal and informal Welsh. Formal Welsh is used when writing, in formal documents, and when speaking to a group (because it also includes the plural), when speaking to someone older than yourself, speaking to someone you have just met, or someone you would like to show respect towards. Formal words and phrases use variations of "chi", meaning "you." Sometimes, people will ask you to call them "chi." Informal Welsh is used when sending e-mails or sending text messages to your friends or family, and when talking with people you have known for a long time. Informal words and phrases use variations of "ti", meaning "you." Sometimes, people will ask you to call them "ti."
There are some sounds and letters that exist in Welsh but not in English, such as the letters (and sounds) ch and ll. The first sound is pronounced like the Scottish Loch Ness, and an example Welsh word that uses the 'ch' is "bach", which means "small." Ll is a voiceless 'l,' and is made by placing the tongue on the top of the top gum, and blowing. A Welsh word that uses the 'll' is "llan", which means "church" and appears a lot in place names, including one called Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch. Both 'ch' and 'll' are single letters in the Welsh alphabet, along with 'dd,' 'ff,' 'ng,' 'ph,' 'rh,' and 'th.' Here are some things to say in Welsh. How to say it is in brackets (). 1. "Croeso i Gymru" (Kroy-sore ee Gum-ree) - Welcome to Wales 2. "Dewch i mewn" (Dew-ch ee mewn) - Come in(formal Welsh) 3. "Bore da" (Bor-eh dah) - Good morning 4. "Cai ydw i" (Ky uh-doo ee) - I am Cai (i.e.,My name is Cai) 5. "Pwy ydych chi?" (Poi Ud-uch ee) - Who are you?, or What...
Welsh books and newspapers have been printed for hundreds of years. Some of these books have been translated into English, and some books in other languages have been translated into Welsh. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stonewas translated into Welsh, with the translation of "Harri Potter a Maen yr Athronydd", which means the same as the English title. BBC Radio Cymru is a Welsh-language radio station that is available throughout Wales. Some local radio stations have some Welsh and English programs during the day. The Welsh television channel, S4C, has been on air since 1982. It broadcasts shows such as the soap opera Pobol y Cwm, and children's programs such as Superted and Sam Tân (known as Fireman Sam in English). In August 2009, the mobile phone maker Samsung(with provider Orange) unveiled a new Welsh language mobile phone would be available from September 2009. It includes Welsh language predictive text and menus.
The Welsh alphabet has some extra letters that are not used in English, and does not have some others. Although certain letters do not exist in Welsh, they are used sometimes to make sounds that could not possibly be made otherwise. A good example is the word "garej" (meaning garage). The letter "j" does not exist in the Welsh language, and is a lend-word from English. The traditional word for "garage" in Welsh is modurdy, which means, "motor house". Another lend-word is "toiled," which means "toilet" in English. There are now many lend-words in spoken Welsh. Here is the Welsh alphabet; A1, B, C, CH2, D, DD2, E1, F2, FF2, G, NG2, H, I1, L, LL2, M, N, O1, P, PH2, R, RH2, S, T, TH2, U1, W1 2, Y1. 1 These letters are vowels. The letter 'W' can be used either as a vowel (when it is said 'oo' like in the Welsh word 'cwm' (coom) meaning 'valley') or as a consonant (when it is said like it is in English, for example in the Welsh word 'gwyn' (gwin) meaning 'white'). This is the same with le...
The people we now call the Welsh are descended from the people who started arriving in present day Wales after the end of the last ice age, when the glaciers began retreating, approximately 11,000 years ago.
Aug 25, 2019 · The place-names of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English. The study of place-names (or toponymy) in Wales reveals significant features of the country's history and geography, as well as the development of the Welsh language.
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