- Outbreak 2016
- Prepare to See The Doctor
- Prevention in High-Risk Areas
- Prevention in Low-Risk Areas
- Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
- Areas of Risk
- Further Symptoms
- First Signs
[caption id="attachment_6162" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Steve Allen | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] An outbreak was declared in the Solomon Islands in October 2016 after cases of dengue fever continually rose for three months. Initially limited to Honiara and Guadalcanal, the declaration grew to include other nearby provinces eleven days later. In total, a reported 1,212 cases were examined, with the majority of patients being under the age of fifteen and between the ages of twenty-five and forty-nine. The male to female ratio was similar. The number of aerial sprays was ramped up by the government.
Patients often have many questions to ask about this rare disease, so bringing a notepad to the doctor’s office if recommended. Some things patients need to know include the treatments offered, how long the symptoms will last, and if there are any long-term effects. A doctor will likely need to know a patient’s travel history, personal information, and current medications. He or she will want to know all of the symptoms, when they first appeared, and their severity.
A vaccine was introduced, but its effectiveness has not been proven. The only treatment is to alleviate immediate symptoms by taking pain relievers. If vomiting and a fever persist, it is important to stay hydrated by drinking fluids and getting plenty of rest. Severe dengue may require a stay in the hospital, fluids through intravenous, electrolyte replacement, blood pressure monitoring, and possibly a blood transfusion to replace any lost.
A correct diagnosis of dengue fever requires a physical exam and additional tests. Some of the things doctors will look for are an enlarged liver, low blood pressure, a rash, red eyes, an irritated throat, swollen glands, and a quick, weak pulse. Further tests include those of the blood, arterial blood gasses, electrolytes, red blood cells, liver enzymes, and platelets. Serum studies, coagulation studies, a tourniquet test, and a chest x-ray may also be conducted.
[caption id="attachment_6163" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Denise Peterson | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] When traveling in high-risk countries, the key is to avoid being bitten by mosquitos. Choose accommodations equipped with window screens or an air conditioner. Make sure long clothing is worn, especially in areas known for large populations of the insects. Regular use of bug repellent is critical and is available for both clothing and the skin. To avoid attracting mosquitos, remove their prime targets, like anything that collects standing water.
[caption id="attachment_6164" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Arenacreative | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] Warm climate and bodies of water are prime breeding grounds for mosquitos. In countries like Canada and the United States where the risk of coming across an infected bug is relatively low, it is still important to take precautions. Covering up exposed skin, using insect repellent, and lighting citronella candles at night all help minimize the chance of being bitten by mosquitos. Using an indoor air conditioner can also assist with keeping mosquitos away.
[caption id="attachment_6165" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Jarun011 | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] Severe dengue is called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and dates back to the 1950s. An outbreak took place in the Philippines and Thailand but is now more prominent in the countries of Asia and Latin America, where it is one of the main contributors to hospitalization and death. The symptoms of DHF are similar to dengue fever but can lead to complications like circulatory system failure, shock, and death. The accompanying fever can last from two to seven days.
[caption id="attachment_6166" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Alexandr Mitiuc | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] Widespread in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the areas of highest risk for contracting the disease are the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Southern China, Taiwan, The Pacific Islands, Mexico, Africa, and Central and South America. There is a minor risk in the United States, but diagnoses were made during an outbreak in Key West, Florida, in 2009. Greater overseas travel and climate change are increasing the risk for the spread of dengue fever in North America.
Warning signs require immediate medical attention for those spending time in a high-risk area. When full-blown symptoms arise, a patient will typically experience severe pain in the muscles and joints, extreme headaches, pain stemming from behind the eyes, a low white blood cell count, and continued bruising and bleeding from the nose and gums. Another rash may appear after the fever diminishes. The rash occurs as a result of the bleeding under the skin.
[caption id="attachment_6168" align="aligncenter" width="800"]© Tacio Philip Sansonovski | Dreamstime Stock Photos[/caption] When a person is bitten by a mosquito infected with the Dengue virus, it takes anywhere from three to fifteen days for initial symptoms to show up. Some warning signs include fever, fatigue, mood changes, cold, pallid skin, nausea, vomiting blood, elimination of black, tarry stools, bruising, bleeding from the nose or gums, and shortness of breath. After about two to five days following a fever, a rash or red spots on the skin may develop.
Jun 29, 2017 · The dengue symptoms in kids and adults differ in severity, exhibiting different effects. Since there is no specific treatment available for dengue; appropriate management of symptoms is crucial. The only known commercial vaccine for dengue is available in some of the countries like Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia, the Philippines, among others.
- Global Burden of Dengue
- Prevention and Control
- Who Response
The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and hence the actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95% credible interval 284–528 million), of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease).1 Another study, of the prevalence of dengue, estimates that 3.9 billion people, in...
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. After virus incubation for 4–10 days, an infected mosquito is capable of transmitting the virus for the rest of its life. Infected symptomatic or asymptomatic humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. Patients who are already infected with the dengue virus can transmit the in...
Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death.Dengue should be suspected when a high fever (40°C/104°F) is accompanied by 2 of the following symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or rash. Symptoms usually last for 2–7 days, after an incubation period of 4–10 days after the bite from an infected mosquito.Severe dengue is a potentially deadly complication due...
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.For severe dengue, medical care by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and progression of the disease can save lives – decreasing mortality rates from more than 20% to less than 1%. Maintenance of the patient's body fluid volume is critical to severe dengue care.
At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through: 1. preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification; 2. disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats; 3. covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis; 4. applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers; 5. using of personal ho...
WHO responds to dengue in the following ways: 1. supports countries in the confirmation of outbreaks through its collaborating network of laboratories; 2. provides technical support and guidance to countries for the effective management of dengue outbreaks; 3. supports countries to improve their reporting systems and capture the true burden of the disease; 4. provides training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control at the regional level with some of its collaborating centres; 5....
Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. Dengue is common in more than 100 countries around the world. Forty percent of the world’s population, about 3 billion people, live in areas with a risk of dengue. Dengue is often a leading cause of illness in areas with ...
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Dengue fever can, in some cases, be life-threatening. Severe dengue causes abdominal pain and vomiting, breathing difficulties and a decrease in blood platelets that can lead to internal bleeding. Around 2.5% of people affected by severe dengue die from the disease.
The unusual symptoms were the first signs of dengue fever, a potentially deadly disease that has exploded in prevalence in South America and the Caribbean with several tropical countries reporting ...
Epidemic dengue transmission occurs when dengue virus is introduced into a region as an isolated event that involves a single viral strain. If the number of vectors and susceptible pediatric and adult hosts is sufficient, explosive transmission can occur, with an infection incidence of 25-50%.
Jul 29, 2010 · Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is dengue hemorrhagic fever with signs of circulatory failure. The fatality rate can be as low as 0.2 percent with early treatment, but once shock has set in, the ...
Moreover, dengue negative cases or dengue like illnesses were never re-tested for other mosquito carrying viruses to identify the cause of the “2019 febrile epidemic”.