The key features of Asturian geography are its rugged coastal cliffs and the mountainous interior. The climate of Asturias is heavily marked by the Gulf Stream. Falling within the Cantabrian belt known as Green Spain it has high precipitations all year round.
Mountains cover more than four-fifths of Asturias. The region may be divided into several east-west zones. North to south, these include the plains and hills of the Atlantic coast, which occupy a narrow strip and recede into a range of coastal hills.
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CALIFORNIA 36 GEOMORPHIC PROVINCES CALIFORNIA GEOMORPHIC PROVINCES ©California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey, 2002. Reproduction of this CGS Note for classroom or public education purposes is encouraged and does not require written permission. However, please cite California Geological Survey as source.
- Indigenous Background
- Umayyad Occupation and Asturian Revolt
- Initial Expansion
- Social and Political Transformations
- Recognition and Later Solidification
- Viking Raids
- See Also
The kingdom originated in the western and central territory of the Cantabrian Mountains, particularly the Picos de Europa and the central area of Asturias. The main political and military events during the first decades of the kingdom's existence took place in the region. According to the descriptions of Strabo, Cassius Dio and other Graeco-Roman geographers, several peoples of Celticorigin inhabited the lands of Asturias at the beginning of the Christian era, most notably: 1. in the Cantabri, the Vadinienses, who inhabited the Picos de Europa region and whose settlement gradually expanded southward during the first centuries of the modern era 2. the Orgenomesci, who dwelled along the Asturian eastern coast 3. in the Astures, the Saelini, whose settlement extended through the Sella Valley 4. the Luggones, who had their capital in Lucus Asturumand whose territories stretched between the Sella and Nalón 5. the Astures (in the strictest sense), who dwelled in inner Asturias, between th...
The kingdom was established by the nobleman Pelayo (Latin: Pelagius), possibly an Asturian noble. No substantial movement of refugees from central Iberia could have taken place before the Battle of Covadonga, and in 714 Asturias was overrun by Musa bin Nusayr with no effective or known opposition. It has also been claimed that he may have retired to the Asturian mountains after the Battle of Guadalete, where in the Gothic tradition of Theias he was elected by the other nobles as leader of the Astures. Pelayo's kingdom was initially little more than a rallying banner for existing guerilla forces. In the progress of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the main cities and administrative centers fell into the hands of Muslim troops. Control of the central and southern regions, such as the Guadalquivir and Ebro valleys, presented few problems for the newcomers, who used the existing Visigothic administrative structures, ultimately of Roman origin. However, in the northern moun...
Favila was succeeded by Alphonse I, who inherited the throne of Asturias thanks to his marriage to Pelayo's daughter, Ermesinda. The Albeldensian Chronicle narrated how Alphonse arrived in the kingdom some time after the battle of Covadonga to marry Ermesinda. Favila's death made his access to the throne possible as well as the rise of one of the most powerful families in the Kingdom of Asturias, the House of Cantabria. Initially, only Alphonse moved to the court in Cangas de Onís, but, after the progressive depopulation of the plateau and the Middle Valley of the Ebro, where the main strongholds of the Duchy of Cantabria (e.g., Amaya, Tricio and the City of Cantabria) were located, the descendants of Duke Peter withdrew from Riojatowards the Cantabrian area and in time controlled the destiny of the Kingdom of Asturias. Alphonse began the territorial expansion of the small Christian kingdom from its first seat in the Picos de Europa, advancing toward the west to Galicia and toward t...
Written sources are concise concerning the reigns of Aurelio, Silo, Mauregatus and Bermudo I. Generally this period, with a duration of twenty-three years (768–791), has been considered as a long stage of obscurity and retreat of the kingdom of Asturias. This version, defended by some historians, who even named this historical phase as that of the "lazy kings," derived from the fact that, during it, there were apparently no important military actions against al-Andalus. However, there were relevant and decisive internal transformations, which provided a foundation for the strengthening and the expansion of Asturias. First, the first internal rebellion, led by Mauregato (783–788), occurred during those years. The rebellion removed Alphonse II from the throne (although he became king again later, from 791 to 842). This initiated a series of further rebellions whose principal leaders were members of ascending aristocratic palace groups and landowners who, based on the growing economic...
It was not until King Alfonso II (791–842) that the kingdom was firmly established, after Silo's subjugated Gallaecia and confirmed territorial gains in western Basque Country. Ties with the Carolingian Franks also got closer and more frequent, with Alfonso II's envoys presenting Charlemagne with spoils of war (campaign of Lisbon, 797). Alfonso II introduced himself as "an Emperor Charlemagne's man", suggesting some kind of suzerainty. During Alfonso II's reign, a probable reaction against indigenous traditions took place in order to strengthen his state and grip on power, by establishing in the Asturian Court the order and ceremonies of the former Visigoth Kingdom. Around this time, the holy bones of James, son of Zebedee were declared to have been found in Galicia at Iria Flavia. They were considered authentic by a contemporary pope of Rome. However, during the Asturian period, the final resting place of Eulalia of Mérida, located in Oviedo, became the primary religious site and f...
The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844, but were decisively defeated by Ramiro I at Corunna. Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' ballistas – powerful torsion-powered projectile weapons that looked rather like giant crossbows. Seventy of the Vikings' longships were captured on the beach and burned. A few months later, another fleet took Seville. The Vikings found in Seville a population which was still largely Gothic and Romano-Spanish. The Gothic elements were important in the Andalusian emirate. Musa ibn Musa, who took a leading part in the defeat of the Vikings at Tablada, belonged to a powerful Muwalladfamily of Gothic descent. Vikings returned to Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I. Ordoño was at the moment engaged against his constant enemies, the Moors, but a count of the province, Don Pedro, attacked the Vikings and defeated them, inflicting severe losses upon them. Ordoño's successor, Alfonso III, strove to protect the coast against attacks fro...
Remnants of Megalithic and Celtic paganism
Although the earliest evidence of Christian worship in Asturias dates from the 5th century, evangelisation did not make any substantial progress until the middle of the sixth century, when hermits like Turibius of Liébanaand monks of the Saint Fructuoso order gradually settled in the Cantabrian mountains and began preaching the Christian doctrine. Christianisation progressed slowly in Asturias and did not necessarily supplant the ancient pagan divinities. As elsewhere in Europe, the new relig...
The foundations of Asturian culture and that of Christian Spain in the High Middle Ages were laid during the reigns of Silo and Mauregatus, when the Asturian kings submitted to the authority of the Umayyad emirs of the Caliphate of Córdoba. The most prominent Christian scholar in the Kingdom of Asturias of this period was Beatus of Liébana, whose works left an indelible mark on the Christian culture of the Reconquista. Beatus was directly involved in the debate surrounding adoptionism, which...
The most transcendental works of Beatus were his Commentaries to Apocalypse, which were copied in later centuries in manuscripts called beati, about which the Italian writer Umberto Eco said: "Their splendid images gave birth to the most relevant iconographic happening in the History of Mankind". Beatus develops in them a personal interpretation of the Book of Revelation, accompanied by quotes from the Old Testament, the Church Fathersand fascinating illustrations. In these Commentaries a new...
The Kingdom of Asturias was, in its infancy, an indigenous reaction of Astures and Cantabri to a foreign invasion. These people had already fought the Romans in the Cantabrian Wars, and initially resisted Romanisation. Although they preserved many characteristics of their pre-Roman culture, their Celtic languages were later lost in favor of Latin. This kingdom is the birthplace of an influential European medieval architectural style: Asturian pre-Romanesque. This style of architecture was founded during the reign of Ramiro I. This small kingdom was a milestone in the fight against the adoptionist heresy, with Beatus of Liébana as a major figure. In the time of Alfonso II, the shrine of Santiago de Compostelawas "found." The pilgrimage to Santiago, Camiño de Santiago, was a major nexus within Europe, and many pilgrims (and their money) passed through Asturias on their way to Santiago de Compostela.
Glick, Thomas (2005), Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-14771-3
GijonOviedoAvilesSieroPopulation:1.02 millionLanguages:Spanish, Asturian dialect (western, central, and eastern), Leonese dialect, Cantabrian dialect, Montanes dialect, Eonavian dialectEthnicities:Spanish, Asturian, Celtic, Germanic (Visigoth)Capital:Oviedo
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Roman, Celtic, Islamic, then Christianity. This is the timeline of Asturias. Roman emperor, Augustus, conquered the region around 29 BC. The area was under Roman control until the 4th Century when Celtic tribes entered the land and briefly took control before the Islamic Moorish invasion of Spain in the 5th Century. During this time, both Roman and Celtic societies were overruled by the Muslims during the Muslim Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. The geography of Asturias played a major role in how the land was settled. When the Muslims invaded the region, they were unable to penetrate the rugged mountainous terrain; therefore, these areas remained unconquered, never becoming part of Islamic Spain. Christians took advantage of the unconquered mountains and developed a refuge. This area would be the beginning of the Christian Reconquest. In 722 AD, the Kingdom of Asturias was founded, which was the beginning of the Christian political party that would reconquest over the Muslims. The...
Asturias has an official language of Spanish, but many dialects are spoken throughout the region. The first dialect is the Asturian language, which is broken down among the western, central, and eastern areas. These areas are separated by the major river systems that run through Asturias. The western Asturian dialect falls between the borders of the Navia and Nalon rivers. In this area of Asturias, the language is sometimes called Leonese. The central Asturian dialect falls between the borders of the Sella and Nalon rivers. Central Asturian has the most speakers, estimated at around 80% of the total population that speaks Asturian. The eastern Asturian dialect falls between the borders of the Sella River and the Asturian cities Llanes and Cabrales. Eastern Asturian is the least-spoken dialect in Asturias. The other dialects of Spanish spoken in Asturias are Cantabrian, Montanes, Eonavian. Cantabrian is spoken mostly in the neighboring region Cantabria on the eastern side of the regi...
Because Muslims never fully invaded the northern regions of Spain, the primary religion in present-day Asturias is Christianity; specifically, Roman Catholic. Roman Catholicism makes up around 63% of the total religion practiced in Asturias, while atheism makes up the remaining 37%.
Asturias, Spain is an extremely mountainous region with many rivers flowing through it. The mountainous region helped preserve the indigenous people from being invaded, which is why there are many Celts, Romans, and Christians still present today. Because the region is largely coastal, Asturias has an extremely wet climate. It falls directly in the path of the gulf stream that flows through the area. The climate remains warm on the coastlines and valleys of the region throughout the year, while the mountains are often snowcapped during the winter. The mountains of Asturias have created a thriving coal mining business, which gives the region much of its economical status. Coal mining has resulted in steel productions, which has been fluctuating industry since the 1980s.
Most of the Asturian culture is credited to the historical architecture that is still present today. Much of the architecture in the region has Romanesque and Baroque influences, giving credit to the Catholic church and the medieval time periods in which they were constructed. Some of the architecture found in the region have been honored as World Heritage Sites.
Asturias migration was first recorded in the 1830s when emigrants left the region for the New World in the western hemisphere. Emigrants left the region during this time to find new ways to trade, invest, and start their own businesses as a result of the Industrial Revolution in both the Americas as well as Europe. Some emigrants remained in the Americas while others returned to Spain wealthier than ever. This time period is the only recorded significant immigration event in Asturias history.
The genealogy of Spain is mostly Spanish, Germanic, and native Asturian. Asturias did not see a lot of invasion in the area, as the mountainous terrain throughout the region was difficult for invaders to penetrate and settle. However, many Asturians emigrated from the area to the Americas and other areas of the New World during the Industrial Revolution of the 1830s. For this reason, it is likely that genealogy of those located in present-day southern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America possess DNA qualities related to the Asturias region of Spain. The features of Asturian genealogy can be a mixture of Germanic (light hair and eyes) or Spanish (dark hair, eyes, and skin), as both of these ethnicities are native to the region.
Jan 01, 2010 · La Rodá. in Oviedo (Asturias Province) Contents: Locality The population development of La Rodá as well as related information and services (weather, Wikipedia, Google, images).
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The capital of the Principality of Asturias is Oviedo, with Gijón being the largest city. Other significant towns in the region are Aviles, Langreo, Mieres, Pola de Siero, Cangas de Narcea, Navia, Luarca, Grado, Ribadesella, Arriondas, Cangas de Onís and Llanes.