Divided into eight comarcas (counties), the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by León (Castile and León) to the south, by Lugo (Galicia) to the west, and by the Cantabrian sea to the north. Asturias is situated in a mountainous setting with vast greenery and lush vegetation, making it part of Green Spain.
Asturias, a northern Spanish region on the Cantabrian Sea (Bay of Biscay), has been a center of mining and metallurgyfor thousands of years. Between 1900 and 1924, thousands of Spaniards emigrated from Asturias to the United States.
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Tens of thousands of Asturians moved to the United States en masse, mainly to agricultural industries of Florida and California and the zinc smelters of West Virginia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They were also involved in working in industrial bases of Midwestern factory towns. (see Asturian-American ).
Mountains cover more than four-fifths of Asturias. The region may be divided into several east-west zones. North to south, these include the plains and hills of the Atlantic coast, which occupy a narrow strip and recede into a range of coastal hills.
United States of America (US) - State/Province Table. The following table lists the valid state/province codes that you can use for the United States of America (<countryCode> = US):CodeState/ProvinceALAlabamaAKAlaskaAAAPO - AAAEAPO - AE
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Alta California ("Upper California") was nominally controlled by a national-government appointed governor. The governors of California were at first appointed by the Viceroy (nominally under the control of the Spanish kings), and after 1821 by the approximate 40 Mexican Presidents from 1821 to 1846. The costs of the minimum Alta California government were mainly paid by means of a roughly 40–100% import tariff collected at the entry port of Monterey. The other center of Spanish power in Alta...
The independence-minded Californios were also influenced by the increasing numbers of immigrant foreigners (mostly English and French, Americans being grouped with the "English"), who integrated with the Californios, becoming Mexican citizens and gaining land either independently granted to them or through marriage to Californio women; involvement in local politics was inevitable. For example, the American Abel Stearns was an ally of the Californio José Antonio Carrillo in the 1831 Victoria i...
Californios included the descendants of agricultural settlers and retired escort soldiers deployed from what is modern-day Mexico. Most were of mixed ethnicities, usually Mestizo (Spanish and Native American) or mixed African and Amerindian backgrounds. Despite the depictions of the popular shows like Zorro, few Californios were of "pure" Spanish (Peninsular or Criollo) ancestry. Most with unmixed Spanish ancestry were Franciscanpriests, along with career government officials and military off...
In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà and less than two hundred men, on expedition founded the Presidio of San Diego (military post). On July 16, Franciscan friars Junípero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and 'blessed a cross', establishing the first mission in upper Las Californias, Mission San Diego de Alcalá.Colonists began arriving in 1774. Monterey, California was established in 1770 by Father Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolà (first governor of Las Californias province (1767–177...
The end of Mexican rule
In the 1830s the newly formed Mexican government was experiencing difficulties having gone through several revolts, wars, and internal conflicts and a seemingly never-ending string of Mexican Presidents. One of the problems in Mexico was the large amount of land controlled by the Catholic Church (estimated then at about one-third of all settled property), which was continually granted property by many landowners when they died, and controlled property supposedly held in trust for the Native A...
Mexican Governors of California
The Californios had a succession of Mexican appointed governors who nearly all either died in office or were driven from office. Many of governors appointed by Mexico proved to be mediocre, autocratic and indifferent to Californio concerns or needs and were driven from office. The native Californio governors were usually self-appointed and acted as governor pro temporeuntil Mexico heard about the previous Governor's death or ouster and they could appoint a new governor or approve the existing...
The Californio population was 10,000 in 1845, estimated. 1. Rosario E. Aguilar 2. José Antonio Aguirre (early Californian) 3. Pedro de Alberni 4. Juan Bautista Alvarado, governor 5. José María Alviso, grantee of Rancho Milpitas, Alcalde of San José 6. Concepción Argüello 7. Luis Antonio Arguello 8. José Darío Argüello 9. Santiago Arguello 10. Santiago E. Arguello 11. Avila family of California 12. Arcadia Bandini, businesswoman and co-founder of Santa Monica, California 13. Juan Bandini 14. Berreyesa family, various early settlers holding land grants (between them, José de los Reyes Berreyesa) 15. Diego de Borica 16. Dionisio Botiller 17. José Raimundo Carrillo 18. José Antonio Carrillo 19. Guillermo Castro (soldier) 20. José Castro, general of the Mexican army in Alta California 21. Víctor Castro 22. Gil Cisneros- His great-grandmother was born in Los Angeles in the early 19th century. 23. Eulogio F. de Celis 24. Joseph Chiles 25. Antonio F. Coronel 26. Ygnacio Coronel 27. Leonardo...Richard Henry Dana, Jr., recounted aspects of Californio culture which he saw during his 1834 visit as a sailor in Two Years Before the Mast.Joseph Chapman, a land realtor noted as the first Yankee to reside in the old Pueblo de Los Angeles in 1831, described Southern California as a paradise yet to be developed. He mentions a civilizat...Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton, The Squatter and the Don, a novel set in 1880s California, depicts a very wealthy Californio family's legal struggles with immigrant squatters on their land. The novel...
Culture, race and ethnicity
1. Hispanic 2. Hispanos 3. Neomexicano 4. Spanish American 5. Tejano
History and government
1. History of California 2. History of California before 1900 3. Provincias Internas 4. California Republic 5. Conquest of California
1. Guide to the Amador, Yorba, López, and Cota families correspondence.Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California. 2. Guide to the Orange County Californio Families Portrait Photograph Album.Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.
1. Californios, a People and a Culture, a personal website 2. Pitti, José; Antonia Castaneda and Carlos Cortes (1988). "A History of Mexican Americans in California", in Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. California Department of Parks and Recreation, Office of Historic Preservation. 3. A Continent Divided: The U.S.-Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, University of Texas at Arlington
California is the third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties.
Recommended division of the United States into "physigraphic provinces" of the United States based on landscape characteristics and shared geologic characteristics was first suggested by reported by Fenneman, Nevin M., 1917. "Physiographic Subdivision of the United States".
May 31, 2018 · The United States (US) is one of the world’s largest countries. It has an area of 9,826,675 square km. The geography of the country varies widely across its massive area. To aid studies and research, the US has been divided into eight distinct physiographic divisions/regions. Each division is further divided into smaller subdivisions.