Symptoms of septic shock in dogs
- Symptoms and Types. Early shock. Rapid heart rate. Normal or high arterial blood pressure. Bounding pulses. Reddened moist tissues of the body. The pink or red color of the gums is very quick to return when the gums are blanched by finger pressure. Fever.
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Symptoms of septic shock include: Not eating; Vomiting; Drooling; An elevated heart rate; Dark red gums; Pale, pink gums; Dehydration; Panting; Difficulty breathing; Weakness or lethargy; Abdominal pain; Diarrhea; Straining to urinate or defecate; Collapse; Excessive licking of the rear end; A foul odor from the rear end; Vaginal discharge; Fever; A distended abdomen
A dog showing hyperdynamic symptoms of sepsis may have a fever and dark red mucous membranes, such as his gums and the inner tissue of his eyelids. His heart rate may be fast -- faster than the normal range of 60 to 140 beats per minute -- and he may have a racing pulse.
Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Has Symptoms Hello. Three weeks ago my dog started vomiting in the early hours of the morning. About 2 very small piles. Then at 11 am she vomited a large pile of very mucousy undigested kibble. She started to become lethargic so I brought her to the vet. Blood told of high WBCs and globulins. They gave her fluids and she perked up a bit. They told her to bring her back the next morning if she was any more lethargic and sure enough she was VERY lethargic the next morning. Needless to say took her to the emergency vet. Took them a few hours to get her heart beat down..its was VERY fast. They got it down, ran blood work again, low sugar, and elevated liver enzymes. they kept her over the weekend. Then on Monday brought her to the cardiologist.Her beat was steady but xrays showed enlarged heart, and VERY small pockets of fluid in the abdomen which they checked and didnt see any bacteria. The doc sent her home on anti arrhythmics but her heart still beats very fast to this day..but she runs around barks eats and drinks water. She gets somewhat lethargic at night. No one can tell me what caused this arrhythmia and why it isnt going away. Any thoughts? Was this septic shock that gave her a lasting arrhythmia that requires meds for the rest of her life?
We took him to the vet (twice now) - first time, CBC was done, X-rays, and he left with anti-inflammatory meds. Two weeks later (today) we took him again because he began drooling and seemed even weaker and more wobbly. Again, we were prepared to hear he was \\"actively dying\\" or similar.
CBC today revealed he has an active infection (we don't know where) and enlarged heart. Slightly elevated protein. Since we now know there's an infection, he was given IV antibiotics and we came home to nurse him back to health with antibiotics. We really can't afford a hospital stay, so we'll do our best to take care of him. What can we do to support his health and chance at recovery. The vet today said he was \\"near shock\\" (so that's hopeful). My 4 month old boxer was limping on her leg 5 days ago. I took her to the vet. They did X-rays and gave her a pain medicine and an anti inflammatory. As the days went on she seemed like she wasnt feeling well still. I took her back to the vet yesterday where they confirmed she had a scrap on her leg that is infected. They kept her overnight on iv fluids. I got a phone call this morning. The infection spread to her boood stream and now they are giving her a stronger dose of antibiotics. Will she make it? When she comes home what kind of care will she needs? Also she has ate very little.
- Symptoms and Types
- Living and Management
Early shock 1. Rapid heart rate 2. Normal or high arterial blood pressure 3. Bounding pulses 4. Reddened moist tissues of the body 5. The pink or red color of the gums is very quick to return when the gums are blanched by finger pressure 6. Fever 7. Rapid breathing Late shock 1. Rapid heart rate or slow heart rate 2. Poor pulse 3. Pale gums or moist tissues of the body 4. The pink color of the gums is slow to return when the gums are blanched by finger pressure 5. Cool extremities (from lack of circulation) 6. Low body temperature 7. Mental depression or stupor 8. Production of only small amounts of urine 9. Difficulty breathing; rapid breathing 10. Small, pinpoint areas of bleeding in the skin and moist tissues of the body. 11. Fluid build-up in the tissues, especially the legs and under the skin (swollen limbs) 12. Gastrointestinalbleeding 13. Extreme weaknessPossible history of known infection (such as urinary tract infection or infection/inflammation of the prostate)Previous surgery may dispose animals to infectionOther conditions or treatments that potentially decrease the immune response, such as diabetes mellitus; increased levels of steroids produced by the adrenal glands; , or Cushing's disease; treatme...Compromise of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in bacteria moving from the intestinal tract into the body and causing bacterial toxins to accumulate in the blood (endotoxemia)
Clinical features include fever, inflammatory response, and collapse of the circulation system. Septic shock associated with circulatory collapse must be differentiated from systemic infection with adequate compensatory cardiovascular response. Circulatory collapse is associated with rapid heart beat or slow heart beat, reduced cardiac output, low blood pressure, reduction of blood flowing into the tissues, and evidence of multi-organ dysfunction such as mental depression, decreased urination, and hemorrhage. Your doctor will want to keep a close watch on blood pressure. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. Your veterinarian will depend heavily on a urinalysis and blood tests to determine your dog's condition. Visual diagnostics will include chest X-rays to look for pneumonia and to examine the heart, and echocardiography may be used to determine whether the heart muscle is working properly. Abdomin...
Your dog will be hospitalized for circulatory collapse. Vigorous fluid therapy containing crystalloids and colloids will be needed to increase effective circulating blood volume. Crystalloids are fluids that contain electrolytes (chemical compounds such as sodium, potassium, chloride) necessary for the body to function. Crystalloids generally are similar to the fluid content (plasma) of the blood and move easily between the blood and body tissues. Colloids are fluids that contain larger molecules that stay within the circulating blood to help maintain circulating blood volume. Oxygen supplementation is as important as fluid replacement and will be administered by oxygen cage, mask, or nasal cannula (tube). Aggressive treatment and life support may be required if your dog has progressed to a severe stage of shock. Your veterinarian may surgically remove any source of generalized bacterial infection, such as an abscess. Medications will be chosen according to the underlying infection...
Your veterinarian will keep a close watch on your dog's heart rate, pulse intensity, color of gums and moist tissues (mucous membrane), breathing rate, lung sounds, urine output, mental status, and rectal temperature. Aggressive treatment is generally called for, with fluids or medications to improve heart muscle contraction. Electrocardiogram (ECG), a recording of the electrical activity of the heart, and blood pressure measurement are useful; blood-gas analysis (measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in arterial blood) and pulse oximetry (a means of measuring oxygen levels in blood) to monitor tissue oxygen levels will also yield important information as your veterinarian monitors your dog's progress. Further treatment will be based on blood work, such as packed cell volume, a means of measuring the percentage volume of red-blood cells as compared to the fluid volume of blood; serum total protein (a quick laboratory test that provides general information on the level of...
Diagnosis of Septic Shock in Dogs A complete blood count (CBC) done on a dog with sepsis will show increased white blood cell counts and possibly signs of toxicity in those cells. Indications of dehydration may also be present in the CBC.
- Clinical Effects
- Novel Therapies
- Laboratory Confirmation
- Medical and/or Surgical Procedures
- Check Monitoring
- Owner/Client Information to Discuss
- Notes to Remember
The sequence of events leading to sepsis is complex and not completely understood. In the initial phases of infection, microbial products (e.g., endo-toxin from gram-negative bacteria; exotoxins, peptidoglycans and super antigens from gram-positive bacteria; and fungal cell-wall material) induce systemic inflammation through activation of immune cells, resulting in an imbalance between pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF) and anti-inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-10). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and leukotrienes are examples of important pro-inflammatory mediators contributing to the pathologic effects of sepsis in dogs. Ultimately, induction of pro-inflammatory mediators leads to inflammatory cell infiltration, altered thermoregulation, vasodilation, vascular leakage and coagulation.
Dogs can have either a hyper-dynamic or hypodynamic response during sepsis. The hyperdynamic response is characterized by fever, brick-red mucous membranes, tachycardia and bounding pulses. With disease-process progression, a hypodynamic response characterized by hypotension, pale mucous membranes and hypothermia can be observed. Often dogs will have GI or respiratory signs associated with the sepsis. Possible serum chemistry profile abnormalities may include hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia and elevated serum ALT and/or ALP. Coagulation abnormalities are common. Anticoagulant proteins (protein C and antithrombin) are significantly decreased and PT, PTT and D-dimer concentrations are significantly increased in naturally occurring sepsis in dogs. Altered microcirculation and tissue hypoxia may lead to metabolic acidosis in septic dogs. Little is known about the prevalence of organ dysfunction or failure during canine sepsis, although hemody...
The most important aspect of treating sepsis in dogs centers on the identification and eradication of the inciting cause (see "Products for management of canine parvoviral enteritis or bacterial infection" below). An effort should be made to identify the causative microorganism through cytologic examination and culture. Although stringent effort should be made to identify the cause of sepsis, antimicrobial treatment should not be withheld pending these results. The use of appropriate broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents is recommended. Since bacteria are the leading cause of sepsis in dogs, typically broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy (e.g., fluoroquinolone plus penicillin derivative) is instituted. The remainder of medical therapy centers on maintenance of tissue perfusion and aggressive supportive care. Treatment should, however, be tailored to the needs of the individual dog. Cardiovascular support is an important aspect of maintaining good tissue perfusion. Intravenous fluid thera...
Polymyxin Bis a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic that binds the endotoxin that is released from gram-negative bacteria during sepsis, causing activation of inflammatory cells. Endotoxin that is bound to polymyxin is unable to activate inflammatory cells, preventing cytokine production and development of systemic inflammation. Administration of polymyxin may be an efficacious, affordable and safe means of inhibiting gram-negative, bacteria-induced inflammation dogs. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, dogs treated with polymyxin (12,500 IU/kg, IM BID) had significantly improved hydration, capillary refill time, pulse quality and significantly lower plasma TNF concentrations than the control group during naturally occurring gram-negative sepsis. Potential dose-dependent side effects of polymyxin B include respiratory depression, nephrotoxicosis, cardiovascular compromise and neuro-toxicosis. However, the dose needed to achieve anti-endotoxic effects is low, making these side...Fecal parvovirus antigen testCBCSerum chemistry profile and electrolytesIntestinal parasites are likely to be present such as hookworms, roundworms, giardia.
Aseptically place an intravenous or intraosseous in-dwelling catheter. Provide adequate fluids for reperfusion of vital organs, using lactated Ringer's solution or Normosol-R at a volume and rate adequate to restore perfusion to the vital organ at a supranormal level. If perfusion is poor, rapidly infuse an intravenous bolus of hetastarch or dextran 70 at a rate of 20 ml per kg for initial resuscitation and provide supplemental oxygen by nasal catheter. Do not use hypertonic saline solution in this resuscitative process, because the animal is usually severely dehydrated. Rehydrate with lactated Ringer's solution or Normosol-R at a rate of 3 ml to 10 ml per kg per hour initially until hydration is restored over four hours; maintenance rate is 2 ml to 3 ml per kg per hour. Note:Using hetastarch or dextran 70, less fluid is lost into the gastro-intestinal tract, and the total volume of fluid required for rehydration is approximately 50 percent of what is used when lactated Ringer's sol...
Packed-cell volume, total plasma solids, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, sodium, and potassium every four to six hours. Supplement and adjust fluid rate as deemed necessary. Check perfusion parameters (mucous-membrane color, pulse rate and intensity, capillary refill time, blood pressure, central venous pressure) every two to four hours, and resuscitate with fluids plus or minus hetastarch or dextran 70 infusion as necessary. Estimate quantity of vomiting, diarrhea and urine output, and record observations every two hours. Monitor rectal temperature every four to six hours.
Anticipate the problems of poor perfusion, severe dehydration, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, aspiration pneumonia, sepsis/septic shock, intussusception, hyperthermia or hypothermia, and massive fluid replacement requirements. Maintain the albumin concentration above 2 g/dl, which likely needs to be done with fresh-frozen plasma on hospital days 2 to 4. Administer hetastarch or dextran 70 at a rate of 10 ml to 20 ml per kg over four hours, decreasing lactated Ringer's solution or Normosol-R during this time interval, on hospital days 2 and 3.Cost estimateVaccinate other dogsGood sanitation, such as use disinfectants for environmental cleanupVery poor prognosis for RottweilersSubcutaneous fluids may cause sterile abscesses and slough the skin because of poor circulation.Update other vaccinations after clinical recovery.
Symptoms of Sepsis in Dogs When the bacteria enter the blood stream and affect the rest of the organs, the dog will display various symptoms, depending on what areas of the body are affected first. Watch out for symptoms such as: Vomiting and diarrhea often with blood and mucus in it, as, typically, the gastrointestinal tract is affected first
COMPENSATORY SHOCK: EARLY DECOMPENSATORY SHOCK: LATE DECOMPENSATORY SHOCK: TABLE 1 Clinical Signs Associated with Each Stage of Shock in Dogs; Temperature: Normal to low normal (98°F–99°F) a: Slight to moderate hypothermia (96°F–98°F) Moderate to marked hypothermia (<96°F) Heart rate: Tachycardia (>180 bpm) Tachycardia (>150 bpm) Bradycardia (<140 bpm)