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  1. Germany - Wikipedia

    Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.

    • Early History, The Code of Euric, and The Holy Roman Empire
    • The Reformation
    • Prussia and The Rise of The First German Empire
    • World War I and The Weimar Republic
    • The Rise of Hitler and The Third Reich
    • The Cataclysm of World War II
    • The Federal Republic of Germany
    • The German Democratic Republic

    Germany did not become a unified modern state until 1871, but its regions and principalities played a central role in influencing Europe from its earliest history. Germanic tribes initially migrated from the Black Sea region around 500 BC to the Jutland peninsula on the Baltic Sea and then to other parts of the coast. Beginning in the first century BC, Germanic tribes migrated west to England and south to contemporary France, Italy, Germany, and Poland. After enduring centuries of attack and eventual conquest by Roman legions, Germanic tribes repelled Rome's imperial army and in AD 410, the Visigoths, led by Alaric, sacked Rome itself. During the fifth century AD, Euric, the king of the Visigoths, wrote down the oral tradition of Germanic laws into the Code of Euric, which influenced the development of European political systems through its manner of choosing successor kings by a grand council of electors, namely the leaders representing the many Germanic regions). Under Charlemagne...

    In 1517, Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses, which protested the widespread practice of Catholic clergy to sell indulgences (absolution for forgiven sins) and challenged the authority of the Pope, launched the Reformation, a continent-wide development of alternative Christian churches and sects generally known as Protestant (because their beliefs and practices protested against Church doctrine). This religious division had political consequences. The Germanic principalities and kingdoms divided into a largely Protestant (Lutheran) north and mostly Catholic south. The bloody Thirty Years' War (1618–48), which involved all the major European powers, was fought to prevent the Reformation’s spread to other parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The fighting, which was concentrated on German lands, resulted in the deaths of four million people from war, famine, and disease. It ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which established the principle of freedom of religion with...

    Over the next century, the Protestant Brandenburg-Prussia monarchy began to eclipse the Catholic Hapsburgs of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in military and economic power. Prussia took over Poland's western territories in the 1793 partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but its growing power in Central Europe was stemmed by Napoleon's victory over Prussia in the Battle of Jena in 1806. At the Congress of Vienna following Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, the 39 German states decided to place a new German Confederation under Austro-Hungarian leadership. But after the 1848 revolutions, Prussia re-emerged as the dominant state within a gradually weakening German Confederation. After William I became King of Prussia in 1861, his prime minister, Otto von Bismarck, put together a new federation of 22 northern states under Prussian leadership. In 1871, Bismarck established the First German Empire (or Reich) and made himself chancellor.

    Under Bismarck, Germany emerged as a modern nation-state, propelled by rapid industrialization and a high level of militarization. But Germany's economic power and aggressive foreign policy brought it into conflict with other European states, which ultimately led to World War I. After four exhausting years of fighting on two fronts, East and West, Germany surrendered in 1918. The end of the war led to the establishment of Germany's first democratic constitution and government, led by the popular Social Democratic Party. But the new government was weakened by Communist rebellions and, more lastingly, by the Treaty of Versailles, which it was forced to sign in June 1919. The Treaty set harsh terms requiring Germany to cede disputed territories, to demilitarize and deindustrialize in key economic areas, and to pay large reparations. Germany's postwar period of democratic government, the Second Republic (known as the Weimar Republic), was marked by failed putsches, temporary occupation...

    In this setting, a dictatorship emerged from a democracy. Two parties representing opposing totalitarian ideologies, the National Socialist (Nazi) Party led by Adolph Hitler and the Communist Party, gained the most seats in in the 1932 elections for the Reichstag (parliament). In early 1933, President Hindenburg asked Hitler, who had promised to reverse the national humiliation of Versailles, to form a government. Ten years earlier, Hitler had declared his vision of absolute power and of so-called “Aryan” racial domination in his political manifesto Mein Kamp. Once in power, he quickly moved to implement his vision. Soon after Hitler became chancellor, a fire destroyed the Reichstag building. When an unemployed Dutch communist admitted to setting the fire, Hitler claimed that it was a planned provocation of the Communist Party and arrested its leaders. Hindenburg, although with dubious authority, approved emergency powers for Hitler (the Reichstag Fire Decree). Then, on March 27, 19...

    Hitler annexed Austria later in 1938, established a Tripartite Pact with other fascist powers (Italy and Japan), and signed a non-aggression Pact with the Soviet Union in 1939. The Pact allowed Hitler to invade western Poland on September 1, 1939, thus launching World War II, while giving the Soviet Union carte blanche to invade eastern Poland and other Eastern European territories. Within a year the Nazi army defeated France, occupied much of Western Europe and North Africa, and attacked Britain. Hitler broke his agreement with Stalin and ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. And in December 1941, Germany declared war on the United States as an ally of Japan following its attack on Pearl Harbor. After reaching Moscow in 1942–3, the Nazi army was repulsed on both the eastern and western fronts. By 1945, Nazi Germany was defeated and occupied by Allied and Soviet forces. The total number of lives lost in the European theater of WWII alone was unprecedented in human h...

    Following Germany's unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, the Allied powers set the terms of post-war Europe at a meeting in Potsdam, Germany. Germany's eastern territories were ceded to Poland (whose own eastern territories had been annexed to the Soviet Union) and Germany was divided into four occupied zones to be administered by the Americans, British, French, and Soviets. The capital, Berlin, was similarly divided. In its drive to Germany, the Soviet Union had occupied most of Eastern Europe and effectively extended its border to eastern Germany. The Soviet Union's blockade of the western zones of Berlin in 1948 confirmed its intentions to permanently occupy the eastern zone and all of Berlin. In response, the Americans, British, and French decided to create a separate state out of their three zones, the Federal Republic of Germany. It was established on May 23, 1949 with the adoption of the Basic Law. The Soviet Union established the German Democratic Republic (East Germany)...

    By contrast, in Germany’s eastern occupied zone, the Soviet Union established a communist dictatorship that was incorporated into a new system of satellite countries that in 1955 formed the Warsaw Pact. Early in the Soviet occupation, the prewar Social Democratic Party was forced to merge with the Communist Party to form the Socialist Unity Party (SED). With the formal establishment of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1949, a Soviet-style constitution was imposed in which all power was concentrated in the SED. East Germany was among the most closed and repressive of the Soviet bloc countries. Political opponents were imprisoned and all institutions were placed under the control of the secret police, the Stasi (Staatssicherheit). By the end of the period of Communist rule, the Stasi had nearly 100,000 employees and as many as two million collaborators who spied on the population. From the West, the most obvious sign of the GDR's repressive system was its shooting of people who...

  2. Germany is a constitutional democracy. Citizens choose their representatives periodically in free and fair multiparty elections. The lower chamber of the federal parliament (Bundestag) elects the head of the federal government, the chancellor.

  3. Weimar - Wikipedia

    Weimar (German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ̯]; Latin: Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden.

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  5. Germany Facts for Kids |
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    Germany gained importance as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which was the first Reich, a word translated as empire. It was started by Charlemagne who became the first Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD, and it lasted until 1806, the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The second Reich was started with a treaty in 1871 in Versailles. The biggest state in the new German Empire was Prussia. The Kings of Prussia were also "German Emperors", but they did not call themselves "Emperors of Germany". There were many other kingdoms, duchiesand republics in the Empire, but not Austria. Germany stayed an empire for 50 years. The treaty of unification was made after Germany won the Franco-Prussian War with France in 1871. In World War I, Germany joined Austria-Hungary, and again declared war on France. The war became slow in the west and was fought in trenches. Many men were killed on both sides without winning or losing. In the Eastern Front the soldiers fought with the Russian Empire and won t...

    Germany is a constitutional federal democracy. Its political rules come from the 'constitution' called Basic Law (Grundgesetz), written by West Germany in 1949. It has a parliamentary system, and the parliament elects the head of government, the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler). The current Chancellor, Dr Angela Merkel, is a woman who used to live in East Germany. The people of Germany vote for the parliament, called the Bundestag (Federal Assembly), every four years. Government members of the 16 States of Germany (Bundesländer) work in the Bundesrat (Federal Council). The Bundesratcan help make some laws. The head of state is the Bundespräsident (Federal President). This person has no real powers but can order elections for the Bundestag. The current president is Joachim Gauck(Independent). The judiciary branch (the part of German politics that deals with courts) has a Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court). It can stop any actby the law-makers or other leaders i...

    Germany is one of the largest countries in Europe. It stretches from the North Sea and Baltic Sea in the north to the high mountains of the Alps in the south. The highest point is the Zugspitze on the Austrian border, at 2,962 metres (9,718 ft). Germany's northern part is very low and flat (lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande at −3.54 m or −11.6 ft). In the middle, there are low mountain ranges covered in large forests. Between these and the Alps, there is another plain created by glaciers during the ice ages. Germany also contains parts of Europe's longest rivers, such as the Rhine (which makes up a part of Germany's western border, while Oder is on its eastern border), the Danube and the Elbe.

    Germany has one of the world's largest technologically powerful economies. Bringing West and East Germany together and making their economy work is still taking a long time and costing a lot of money. Germany is the largest economy in Europe. In September 2011, the inflation rate in Germany was 2.5%. The unemployment rateof Germany was 5.5% as of October 2011. Germany is one of the G8 countries. The main industry area is the Ruhr area.

    There are at least seven million people from other countries living in Germany. Some have political asylum, some are guest workers (Gastarbeiter), and some are their families. A lot of people from poor or dangerous countries go to Germany for safety. About 50,000 ethnic Danish people live in Schleswig-Holstein, in the north. About 60,000 Sorbs (a Slavic people) live in Germany too, in Saxony and Brandenburg. About 12,000 people in Germany speak Frisian; this language is the closest living language to English. In northern Germany, people outside towns speak Low Saxon. Many people have come to Germany from Turkey (about 1.9 million Turks and Kurds). Other small groups of people in Germany are Croats (0.2 million), Italians (0.6 million), Greeks (0.4 million), Russians, and Poles (0.3 million). There are also some ethnic Germans who lived in the old Soviet Union (1.7 million), Poland (0.7 million), and Romania (0.3 million). These people have German passports, so they are not counted a...

    Germany has a long history of poets, thinkers, artists, and so on. There are 240 supported theaters, hundreds of orchestras, thousands of museums and over 25,000 librariesin Germany. Millions of tourists visit these attractions every year. Germany has created a high level of gender equality, disability rights, and accepts homosexuality. Gay marriageis somewhat legal in Germany. Germany was rated the second most valuable country in the world, and a global poll showed that Germany has the most positive influence on the world.

  6. Düsseldorf - Wikipediaüsseldorf

    Düsseldorf (often Dusseldorf in English sources; UK: / ˈ d ʊ s əl d ɔːr f /, US: / ˈ dj uː s-/, German: [ˈdʏsl̩dɔʁf] (); Low Franconian and Ripuarian: Düsseldörp ([ˈdʏsl̩dœɐ̯p]); archaic Dutch: Dusseldorp) is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, and the seventh-largest city in Germany, with a ...

  7. History of Germany - Wikipedia

    The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany; more than 1/4 of the population and 1/2 of the male population in the German states were killed by the catastrophic war. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent ...

  8. Autobahn - Wikipedia

    The Autobahn (IPA: [ˈʔaʊtoˌba:n] ; German plural Autobahnen) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (abbreviated BAB), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of the word Bundesautobahn is "Federal Auto(mobile) Track".

  9. CARES Act Relief for Incarcerated Stimulus Fund Recipients

    Oct 05, 2020 · On September 24, 2020, Judge Phyllis J. Hamilton of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California issued an Order certifying a nationwide class of people incarcerated in state and federal prisons, and granting the plaintiffs’ motion for preliminary injunction requiring the U.S. Department of Treasury, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, and the …

  10. Homeschooling verboten | The German Way & More

    They soon become Germany’s most famous (or notorious) Heimschul-Familie, determined to fight the Bremen state law (as in all of Germany’s 15 other Länder) that forbids homeschooling. 2017 Update Although I originally wrote this blog post in 2009, nothing has changed except the names of the people still fighting in German or EU courts to ...