What are the names of the joints in the hand?
- The joints of the hand and wrist include hinge, gliding, condyloid and saddle joints. A hinge joint allows movement back and forth.
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Metacarpophalangeal Joint (MCP joint) The MP joint is where the hand bone called the metacarpal meets the finger bones called the phalanges. A single hand bone is called a phalanx. MP joints are important for both power grip and pinch activities; they are where the fingers move with respect to the hand.
Oct 26, 2017 · Carpometacarpal Joint (CMC Joint): The CMC joint is located at the bottom of the hand bone. This joint varies in each finger. For example, in the index finger, it has little motion. In the small finger, it has a lot of motion. Injuries and problems with this joint are uncommon. The thumb joints are a little different than the other finger joints.
Sep 02, 2010 · The CMC joint of the thumb is located at the junction point of the thumb and the wrist. Break down the words in the name, carpometacarpal, and you get carpo- (wrist) and metacarpal (hand bone). This joint is commonly affected by arthritis. The CMC joint’s main function is to allow the thumb to open and grasp wide objects, like a basketball or ...
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Hand and Wrist Anatomy. The hand and wrist are made up of many different bones, muscles and ligaments that enable a wide range of movements. Bones. The following are the main structures of the hands: The wrist is formed where the two bones of the forearm – the radius (the larger bone on the thumb side of the arm) and the ulna (the smaller ...
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The wrist itself is known as the carpus and is made up of eight carpal bones. It also articulates with the hand bones known as the metacarpals of which there are five in the human hand. These metacarpals in turn articulate with the finger bones known as the phalanges (singular ~ phalanx). In the four fingers, excluding the thumb, there is three finger bones known as the proximal, middle and distal phalanges. The thumb has only two finger bones the proximal and distal metacarpals. The wrist is made up of 8 carpal bones. Four of these bones known as the pisiform, triquetrum, lunate and scaphoid form the proximal row of bones that lie next to the radius and ulna. The other four bones known as the hamate, capitate, trapezoid and trapezium form the distal row and lie next to the hand bones (metacarpals). The capsule of the radiocarpal joint has an outer fibrous layer and inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer encapsulates the entire joint attaching to the ulnar, radius and proximal carpal bones. Internally the synovial membrane forms several folds that line the articular surfaces. Several ligaments strengthen this joint including the dorsal and palmar radiocarpal ligaments, as well as the ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligaments. There are 14 phalanges (singular ~ phalanx) that make up the fingers 3 phalanges for each finger except the thumb which has 2 phalanges. The proximal phalanges articulate with the metarcarpals (hand bones), the middle phalanges articulate with the proximal phalanges on one end and the distal phalanges at the other, while the distal phalanges articulate with the middle phalanges and its other end is free and makes up the fingertips. The thumb only has a proximal phalanx and distal phalanx. The metacarpophalynheal joints are condyloid synovial joints between the hand bones (metacarpals) and the first row of finger bones (proximal phalanges). The interphalyngeal joints (IP joints) are hinge joints that lie between the phalanges (proximal and middle; middle and distal). Each MP and IP joint has its own joint capsule with an outer fibrous layer and inner synovial membrane. The joint capsule is strengthened by collateral ligaments on either side (medial and lateral).
The wrist joint is known as the radiocarpal joint radius (forearm long bone) and carpal bones (wrist bones). The ulnar is not involved in the wrist joint. Similarly, the pisiform bone from the proximal row of carpal bones is also not involved in this joint. Therefore the triquetrum, lunate and scaphoid bones articulate with the radius to form the wrist joint. On the surface, this joint lies at the level of the proximal wrist crease.
There are four set of joints within the carpal bones itself. Firstly, each carpal bone articulates with neighboring bones joints between the proximal row of carpal bones and the distal row of carpal bones. Then the promximal and distal row articulate with each other at the midcarpal joint. Lastly, the pisiform and triquetrum form the pisotriquetral joint. The capsule of these joints is an extension of the carpometacarpal joints between the wrist (carpal) and hand (metacarpal) bones. However, the capsule of the radiocarpal (wrist) and wrist and thumb bone (carpometacarpal thumb joint) are separate. The anterior, posterior, and interosseous ligaments secure the small carpal bones in place and ensure that it locks in to articulate with each other.
There are three intermetacarpal joints between the second and third, third and fourth, and fourth and fifth metacarpals. These joints are also surrounded by the same capsule as that of the medial four CMC joints. The thumb is extremely flexible in humans (opposable thumb) and this is facilitated by the very loose capsule between the base of the first metacarpal bone (thumb) and trapezium (carpal bone).
- Hand Muscles and Hand Tendons. The muscles in the forearm and palm (thenar muscles) all work together to keep the wrist and hand moving, stable, and well-aligned.
- Ligaments. There are many ligament of the hand that are made up of tough bands of fibrous tissue. As there are many small bones and joints in the hand, there are also many ligaments within the hand that help to keep the bones together and stabilize the hand.
- Joint Capsule. Other stabilizers in the hand include the joint capsules, which are also made up of fibrous connective tissue that surround each of the joints.
- Hand Nerves. The median, radial, and ulnar nerves are the three major nerves that run the length of the entire arm. These nerves control the muscles of the forearm and hand and give us the sensations of touch, temperature, and pain.