What causes cholera and how is it transmittedAnswer from 3 sources
- Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, although contaminated foods, especially raw shellfish, may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria.
- It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was prevalent in the U.S. in the 1800s, before modern water and sewage treatment systems eliminated its spread by contaminated water. Only about 10 cases of cholera are reported each year in the U.S. and half of the...
- Cholera is caused by ingesting the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These bacteria produce a potent enterotoxin that forces the intestines to excrete massive volumes of highly contagious fluid until the illness runs its course. People are infected with it by drinking or eating contaminated water or food sources.
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Signs and symptoms of dehydration include: Rapid heart rate. Loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched) Dry mucous membranes, including the inside of the mouth, throat, nose, and eyelids. Low blood pressure. Thirst. Muscle cramps.
- Mary Anne Dunkin
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- Risk Factors
Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in a matter of hours, even in previously healthy people.Modern sewage and water treatment have virtually eliminated cholera in industrialized countries. The last major outbreak in the United States occurred in 1911. But cholera is still present in Africa, Southeast Asia and Haiti. The risk of cholera epidemic is highest when poverty, wa...
Most people exposed to the cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) don't become ill and never know they've been infected. Yet because they shed cholera bacteria in their stool for seven to 14 days, they can still infect others through contaminated water. Most symptomatic cases of cholera cause mild or moderate diarrhea that's often hard to distinguish from diarrhea caused by other problems.Only about 1 in 10 infected people develops more-serious signs and symptoms of cholera, usually within a few...
A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. However, the deadly effects of the disease are the result of a potent toxin called CTX that the bacterium produce in the small intestine. CTX binds to the intestinal walls, where it interferes with the normal flow of sodium and chloride. This causes the body to secrete enormous amounts of water, leading to diarrhea and a rapid loss of fluids and salts (electrolytes).Contaminated water supplies are the main source of cholera infectio...
Everyone is susceptible to cholera, with the exception of infants who derive immunity from nursing mothers who have previously had cholera. Still, certain factors can make you more vulnerable to the disease or more likely to experience severe signs and symptoms. Risk factors for cholera include: 1. Poor sanitary conditions. Cholera is more likely to flourish in situations where a sanitary environment — including a safe water supply — is difficult to maintain. Such conditions are common to ref...
Cholera can quickly become fatal. In the most severe cases, the rapid loss of large amounts of fluids and electrolytes can lead to death within two to three hours. In less extreme situations, people who don't receive treatment may die of dehydration and shock hours to days after cholera symptoms first appear.Although shock and severe dehydration are the most devastating complications of cholera, other problems can occur, such as: 1. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Dangerously low levels of bl...
Cholera is rare in the United States with the few cases related to travel outside the U.S. or to contaminated and improperly cooked seafood from the Gulf Coast waters.If you're traveling to cholera-endemic areas, your risk of contracting the disease is extremely low if you follow these precautions: 1. Wash hands with soap and water frequently, especially after using the toilet and before handling food. Rub soapy, wet hands together for at least 15 seconds before rinsing. If soap and water are...
A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person that contaminates water and/or food. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.
Mar 07, 2012 · Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent responsible for cholera. It is a bean-shaped bacterium with a long tail that it uses for self-propulsion. The bacteria are transmitted between humans through the fecal-oral route; a bite of contaminated food or a sip of contaminated water can cause infection.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by a bacterial toxin. Get expert advice on what causes it, how it's transmitted and where does it occur
- Fact Sheet
Symptoms include: 1. watery diarrhea 2. vomiting 3. leg cramps The infection is often mild or without symptoms.Approximately one in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps.In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.
A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. Shellfish eaten raw have been a source of cholera, and a few persons in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill. Persons who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting in countries where cholera occurs should seek medical attention promptly.
CDC: Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) CDC fact sheet that answers some common questions about Vibrio cholerae. Do you suspect that you have a foodborne or waterborne illness? Visit reporting suspected foodborne/waterborne illnesses.
Feb 05, 2013 · But cholera can also spread after a natural disaster such as a flood or earthquake, when fresh water supplies are disrupted. Endemic areas include India, Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, South ...
- Signs and symptoms
Cholera is caused by ingesting the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These bacteria produce a potent enterotoxin that forces the intestines to excrete massive volumes of highly contagious fluid until the illness runs its course. People are infected with it by drinking or eating contaminated water or food sources. Caregivers of those with cholera can infect themselves if they do not have access to effective hygiene. They can infect others if they do not properly dispose of waste and contaminated items. Up to 80% of people who are infected have mild symptoms but can shed bacteria in their stools for up to 10 days. Thus, cholera often becomes rapidly epidemic.
Cholera may be asymptomatic or mild, but 20% develop the classic uncontrollable watery diarrhea, often so severe that the stool of a victim is almost clear and does not stop. The classic appearance is called \\"rice water stool.\\" Nausea and vomiting also occur, but there is usually little abdominal pain or cramping.
If the victim cannot drink enough fluid and electrolytes to replace the loss, they will die from complications of water-electrolyte imbalance (imbalance of body sodium, potassium, and pH). Extreme loss of water also causes life-threatening low blood pressure and shock (\\"hypovolemic shock\\"). The complications of untreated cholera are mainly shock and death from massive fluid loss. Massive electrolyte loss can lead to lethal cardiac rhythm disturbances and seizures.
Other than severe diarrhea, other signs help determine the level of dehydration and whether shock is present. Early symptoms of dehydration include thirst, dry mouth, weakness, and leg cramps, progressing to more advanced symptoms and signs with fast heart rate, drop in blood pressure or fainting upon standing up, and insufficient urine production. A person who is severely dehydrated may have a sunken appearance to the eyes, loosening of the skin, and weight loss; they may develop sleepiness and be difficult to arouse. These are important signs of impending shock, at which point the person will become unresponsive and may develop mottled purple blotches of the extremities.
Those who may be exposed may consult a specialist in infectious diseases or travel medicine for advice, preventive medication, or a vaccine to prevent cholera. Military personnel receive a cholera vaccine as part of preventive medical treatment.
Cholera does not require highly technical treatment, and up to 80% of victims survive if treated with rehydration. An epidemic can be stopped by rehydration of victims and establishing basic sanitation. Rehydration may be accomplished using simple oral rehydration fluid. This may be a product similar to commercial pediatric electrolyte solutions, but an effective oral replacement can be as simple and inexpensive as a solution of clean water with a small amount of sugar and salt. More severe cases of dehydration when a person cannot drink even small sips require IV fluids. Antibiotic treatment of infected individuals is also used to shorten the course of illness and the duration of shedding of the bacteria in stool. Effective antibiotics against cholera include tetracycline, doxycycline (Vibramycin), sulfa drugs such as trimethoprim (Primsol) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), erythromycin (Ery-Tab), and azithromycin (Zithromax).
Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria. Undercooked seafood is a common source. Humans are the only animal affected.