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  1. Frankish Table of Nations - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valagoths

    The Frankish Table of Nations was composed either in Ostrogothic Italy or the Byzantine Empire. Goffart, its most recent editor, favours a Byzantine origin, as does Helmut Reimitz. Nicholas Evans favours an Italian origin. The main argument in favour of an Italian origin is the use of Tacitus.

    • Ethnonym
    • Classification
    • Linguistics
    • History
    • Culture
    • Genetics
    • Later Germanic Studies and Their Influence
    • See Also

    Germanic

    In about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term "Ger­mani" ap­pears in the Fasti Capi­tolini in­scrip­tion de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ(aneis). This may sim­ply be re­fer­ring to Gaul or re­lated peo­ple; but this may be an in­ac­cu­rate date since the in­scrip­tion was erected in about 18 BCE de­spite ref­er­enc­ing an ear­lier date. The term Ger­mani shows up again, al­legedly writ­ten by Po­sei­do­nios (from 80 BCE), but is merely a quo­ta­tion in­serted by the au­thor Athenaios who wro...

    Teutonic

    Latin schol­ars of the 10th cen­tury used the ad­jec­tive teu­ton­i­cus (a de­riv­a­tive of Teu­tones) when ref­er­enc­ing East Fran­cia, which in their ver­nac­u­lar was con­noted "Reg­num Teutonicum", for that area and all of its sub­se­quent in­hab­i­tants. Mod­ern speak­ers of Eng­lish still use the word "Teu­tons" to de­scribe Ger­manic peoples. His­tor­i­cally, the Teu­tones were only one spe­cific tribe, and may not even have spo­ken a Ger­manic lan­guage. For ex­am­ple, some schol­ars...

    By the 1st cen­tury CE, the writ­ings of Pom­po­nius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Tac­i­tusin­di­cate a di­vi­sion of Ger­manic-speak­ing peo­ples into large group­ings who shared an­ces­try and cul­ture. This di­vi­sion has been ap­pro­pri­ated in mod­ern ter­mi­nol­ogy de­scrib­ing the di­vi­sions of Ger­manic lan­guages. Tac­i­tus, in his Ger­ma­nia, wrotethat Tac­i­tus also spec­i­fies that the Suevi are a very large group­ing, with many tribes within it, with their own names. The largest, he says, is the Sem­nones, the Lan­go­b­ardi are fewer, but liv­ing sur­rounded by war­like peo­ples, and in re­moter and bet­ter de­fended areas live the Reudigni, Aviones, An­glii, Varini, Eu­doses, the Suardones, and Nu­ithones. Pliny the Elder, on the other hand, names five races of Ger­mans in his His­to­ria Nat­u­ralis, not three, by dis­tin­guish­ing the two more east­erly blocks of Ger­mans, the Van­dals and fur­ther east the Bas­tar­nae, who were the first to reach the Black Seaand come...

    Lin­guists pos­tu­late that an early proto-Ger­manic lan­guage ex­isted and was dis­tin­guish­able from the other Indo-Eu­ro­pean lan­guages as far back as 500 BCE. The ear­li­est known Ger­manic in­scrip­tion was found at Negau (in what is now south­ern Aus­tria) on a bronze hel­met dat­ing back to the first cen­tury BCE. Some of the other ear­li­est known phys­i­cal records of the Ger­manic lan­guage ap­pear on stone and wood carv­ings in Runic script from around 200 CE. Runic writ­ing likely dis­ap­peared due to the con­certed op­po­si­tion of the Chris­t­ian Church, which re­garded runic text as hea­then sym­bols which sup­pos­edly con­tained in­her­ent mag­i­cal prop­er­ties that they as­so­ci­ated with the Ger­manic peo­ples' pagan past. Un­for­tu­nately, this prim­i­tive view ig­nores the abun­dance of "pious runic writ­ing found on church-re­lated ob­jects" (rang­ing from in­scrip­tions in the door­ways of churches, on church bells and even those found on bap­tismal fonts) w...

    Origins

    Ar­chae­o­log­i­cal and lin­guis­tic ev­i­dence from a pe­riod known as the Nordic Bronze Age in­di­cates that a com­mon ma­te­r­ial cul­ture ex­isted be­tween the Ger­manic tribes that in­her­ited the south­ern re­gions of Scan­di­navia, along with the Schleswig-Hol­stein area and the area of what is now Ham­burg, Germany. Ad­di­tional ar­chae­o­log­i­cal rem­nants from the Iron Age so­ci­ety that once ex­isted in nearby Wessen­st­edt also show traces of this culture. Ex­actly how these cul­...

    Early Iron Age

    The ear­li­est sites at which Ger­manic peo­ples per se have been doc­u­mented are in North­ern Eu­rope, in what now con­sti­tutes the plains of Den­mark and south­ern Swe­den. How­ever, in even this re­gion, the pop­u­la­tion had been, ac­cord­ing to Wald­man & Mason, "re­mark­ably sta­ble" – as far back as the Ne­olithic Age, when hu­mans first began con­trol­ling their en­vi­ron­ment through the use of agri­cul­ture and the do­mes­ti­ca­tion of animals. Given this sta­bil­ity, the pop­u­la...

    Pytheas

    One of the ear­li­est known writ­ten records of the Ger­manic world in clas­si­cal times was in the lost work of Pyth­eas (fl.). It is be­lieved that Pyth­eas trav­eled to north­ern Eu­rope c.325 BCE, and his ob­ser­va­tions about the ge­o­graph­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment, tra­di­tions and cul­ture of the north­ern Eu­ro­pean pop­u­la­tions be­came a cen­tral source of in­for­ma­tion for later his­to­ri­ans - often the only source.[h] Au­thors such as Strabo, Pliny and Diodorus cite Pyth­eas in dis...

    Law

    Com­mon el­e­ments of Ger­manic so­ci­ety can be de­duced both from Roman his­to­ri­og­ra­phy and com­par­a­tive ev­i­dence from the Early Me­dievalpe­riod. A main el­e­ment unit­ing Ger­manic so­ci­eties was king­ship, in ori­gin a sacral in­sti­tu­tion com­bin­ing the func­tions of mil­i­tary leader, high priest, law­maker and judge. Ger­manic monar­chy was elec­tive; the king was elected by the free men from among el­i­gi­ble can­di­dates of a fam­ily (OE cynn) trac­ing their an­ces­try to...

    Warfare

    His­tor­i­cal records of the Ger­manic tribes in Ger­ma­nia east of the Rhine and west of the Danube do not begin until quite late in the an­cient pe­riod, so only the pe­riod after 100 BCE can be ex­am­ined. What is clear is that the Ger­manic idea of war­fare was quite dif­fer­ent from the pitched bat­tles fought by Rome and Greece. In­stead the Ger­manic tribes fo­cused on raids. War­fare of vary­ing size how­ever was a dis­tinc­tive fea­ture of bar­bar­ian culture. The pur­pose of these w...

    Economy

    Traces of the ear­li­est pas­toral­ism of the Ger­manic peo­ples ap­pear in cen­tral Eu­rope in the form of elab­o­rate cat­tle buri­als along the Elbe and Vis­tula Rivers from around 4000–3000 BCE. These ar­chae­o­log­i­cal rem­nants were left by the Glob­u­lar Am­phora cul­ture who cleared forests for herd­ing cat­tle and some­time after 3000 BCE began using wheeled carts and plows to cul­ti­vate their lands. Cen­tral to sur­vival for their as­sis­tance in till­ing the soil and sup­ply­ing...

    It is sug­gested by ge­neti­cists that the move­ments of Ger­manic peo­ples has had a strong in­flu­ence upon the mod­ern dis­tri­b­u­tion of the male lin­eage rep­re­sented by the Y-DNA hap­logroup I1, which is be­lieved to have orig­i­nated with one man, who lived ap­prox­i­mately 4,000 to 6,000 years ago some­where in North­ern Eu­rope, pos­si­bly mod­ern Den­mark (see Most Re­cent Com­mon An­ces­tor for more in­for­ma­tion). There is ev­i­dence of this man's de­scen­dants set­tling in all of the areas that Ger­manic tribes are recorded as hav­ing sub­se­quently in­vaded or mi­grated to.[x] Hap­logroup I1 is older than Ger­manic lan­guages, but may have been pre­sent among early Ger­manic speak­ers. Other male lines likely to have been pre­sent dur­ing the de­vel­op­ment and dis­per­sal of Ger­manic lan­guage pop­u­la­tions in­clude R1a1a, R1b-P312 and R1b-U106, a ge­netic com­bi­na­tion of the hap­logroups found to be strongly-rep­re­sented among cur­rent Ger­manic speak­ing peo...

    The Re­nais­sance re­vived in­ter­est in pre-Chris­t­ian Clas­si­cal An­tiq­uity and only in a sec­ond phase in pre-Chris­t­ian North­ern Europe. The Ger­manic peo­ples of the Roman era are often lumped with the other agents of the "bar­bar­ian in­va­sions", the Alans and the Huns, as op­posed to the civ­i­lized "Roman" iden­tity of the Holy Roman Em­pire. Early mod­ern pub­li­ca­tions deal­ing with Old Norse cul­ture ap­peared in the 16th cen­tury, e.g. His­to­ria de gen­tibus septentrionalibus (Olaus Mag­nus, 1555) and the first edi­tion of the 13th cen­tury Gesta Dano­rum (Saxo Gram­mati­cus), in 1514. Au­thors of the Ger­man Re­nais­sance such as Jo­hannes Aventi­nus dis­cov­ered the Ger­manii of Tac­i­tus as the "Old Ger­mans", whose virtue and un­spoiled man­hood, as it ap­pears in the Roman ac­counts of noble sav­agery, they con­trast with the deca­dence of their own day. The pace of pub­li­ca­tion in­creased dur­ing the 17th cen­tury with Latin trans­la­tions of the Edda (no...

  2. The Bible has Sennacherib saying, "Behold, you have heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, destroying them utterly" [2 Kings 19:11], and King Hezekiah of Judah says to God, "the kings of Assyria have laid waste the nations and their lands" [19:17]. The Bible makes is sound like Jerusalem was only saved by an "angel of the Lord ...

  3. EUROPE and AMERICA in Prophecy

    www.originofnations.org/books, papers/Europe and America...

    As the ancient Babylonian kingdom gained the ascendancy, the wandering peoples of Assyria and the ten-tribed captives among them were pushed ever northward, and westward. The leading tribe of the Assyrians was called the "Halmanni." The Latins called the land of Germany "Alemannia." Today, Mexicans and Spaniards call Germany "Aleman."

  4. Why, at all, do we need Religion? Religion and Morality in ...

    www.academia.edu/10159496/Why_at_all_do_we_need...

    Continuing debates about the secularization process in Europe, and particularly about the impact of secularization on different aspects of individual and social life, got one another dimension after 1989. Up to then officially atheist part of Europe

  5. The handwritten record from Trithemius, penned down sometime around 1499, seems to be the true source of information. There, “MCCCxxij.Colonie deprehensus fuit lolhardus quidam nomine Walterus magister et princeps schole hereticorum illius secte…” that is to say, at Cologne in 1322, there was detected a certain ‘lolhardus’ named ‘Walterus,’ the magister and principal of a school ...

  6. Our Fathers Have Told UsPart I. The Bible of Amiens ... - Scribd

    pt.scribd.com/document/2396233/Our-Fathers-Have...

    Our Fathers Have Told UsPart I. The Bible of Amiens by Ruskin, John, 1819-1900 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.

  7. History of the Christian Church Archives - Page 16 of 27 ...

    worthychristianbooks.com/category/history-of-the...

    61. The Revival of Monasticism. Literature. — The Letters of Anselm, Bernard, Peter the Venerable, William of Thierry, Hildegard, etc. — Abaelard: Hist ...

  8. Full text of "Readings in European History: A Collection of ...

    archive.org/stream/readingsineurop02robigoog/readingsin...

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  9. Teaching in a Digital Age - Open Collections

    open.library.ubc.ca/media/download/html/52387/1...

    But does this mean that knowledge itself is now different? I will argue that in a digital age, some aspects of knowledge do change considerably, but others do not, at least in essence. In particular, I argue that academic knowledge, in terms of its values and goals, does not and should not change a great deal, but the way it is represented and ...

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