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    The online encyclopedia project, Wikipedia, is the most popular wiki-based website, and is one of the most widely viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top twenty since 2007. Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language.

  2. Wikipedia. The world's largest encyclopedia available on the Web at Wikipedia is user generated, and anyone can create or edit an article (see wiki ). Founded in 2001 by Jimmy Wales, as of 2020, there are more than six million articles in English, as well as articles in every language on earth.

    • What’s in A Wiki?
    • So, What Is Wikileaks?
    • What Is Wikipedia?

    Wiki was introduced to the lexicon by computer programmer Ward Cunningham in 1995 when he created collaborative software that he called WikiWikiWeb. Wikiis Hawaiian for “to hurry; fast, quick.” As a noun, wiki means “a website that allows anyone to add, delete, or revise content by using a web browser.” The term wiki is also used as a verb; if you wiki, you areeither researching a topic on a wiki or contributing to one. As reflected in the terms WikiLeaks and Wikipedia, wiki is sometimes used in creating blended words or portmanteaus: a wikiholic devotes a vast amount of time to wiki-based projects. Similarly, a Wikipedianis a person who enthusiastically contributes to Wikipedia. The word has been translated into a number of languages. In Estonian it is viki; in Welsh it is wici. Plenty of websites use the concept of and name wiki; if you’ve ever searched for information on your favorite TV show, you’ve likely come across one of the many fan-updated websites or wikis about the shows...

    WikiLeaks is a site that obtains and publishes secret and classified material in a way that protects its sources (often whistle-blowers, journalists, and activists). The site operates as a nonprofit, and in its early days, it functioned as a collaborative and communal wiki with more than 1,000 volunteers. Today, the site instructs journalists to describe it as an “anti-corruption group,” “transparency group,” or “whistleblower’s site.” WikiLeaks considers itself a library, as its site claims to have released more than 10 million documents. A library can be a physical place, but it can also be “a collection of manuscripts, publications, and other materials for reading, viewing, listening, study, or reference.” This site is no stranger to news media. Founded in 2006, the site began to receive coverage—and plenty of criticism—when it leaked a 2003 Army manual detailing interrogation techniques at the prison in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Other famous leaks include the 2016 release of stolen...

    Despite the similar name and look of its website, WikiLeaks is not affiliated in any way with Wikipedia. Founded in 2001, Wikipedia is a massive, online encyclopedia operating in more than 300 languages. The free site is run by volunteers (the English site claims about 130,000 active editors and scores more who are merely registered), who review and update all its entries. An encyclopediais “a book, set of books, optical disc, mobile device, or online informational resource containing articles on various topics, usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less commonly, all aspects of one subject.” Wikipedia has more than 54 million articles about every topic under the sun: music, insects, parks, rodeos—just give their “random article” link a try! Wikipedia obviously differs from its predecessors, printed encyclopedias, because it’s constantly updated. An estimated 21 updates are made every minute, on average. You’d use Wikipedia to research any topic...

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    • Word Classes and Phrases
    • Negation
    • Clause and Sentence Structure
    • History of English Grammars
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs form open classes – word classes that readily accept new members, such as the noun celebutante (a celebrity who frequents the fashion circles), and other similar relatively new words. The others are considered to be closed classes. For example, it is rare for a new pronoun to enter the language. Determiners, traditionally classified along with adjectives, have not always been regarded as a separate part of speech. Interjections are another word class, but these are not described here as they do not form part of the clause and sentencestructure of the language. Linguists generally accept nine English word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and exclamations. English words are not generally marked for word class. It is not usually possible to tell from the form of a word which class it belongs to except, to some extent, in the case of words with inflectional endings or derivational suffixe...

    As noted above under § Verbs, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as do, can or be. For example, the clause I go is negated with the appearance of the auxiliary do, as I do not go (see do-support). When the affirmative already uses auxiliary verbs (I am going), no other auxiliary verbs are added to negate the clause (I am not going). (Until the period of early Modern English, negation was effected without additional auxiliary verbs: I go not.) Most combinations of auxiliary verbs etc. with not have contracted forms: don't, can't, isn't, etc. (Also the uncontracted negated form of can is written as a single word cannot.) On the inversion of subject and verb (such as in questions; see below), the subject may be placed after a contracted negated form: Should he not pay? or Shouldn't he pay? Other elements, such as noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, infinitive and participial phrases, etc., ca...

    A typical sentence contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions (see above). A clause typically contains a subject (a noun phrase) and a predicate(a verb phrase in the terminology used above; that is, a verb together with its objects and complements). A dependent clause also normally contains a subordinating conjunction (or in the case of relative clauses, a relative pronoun, or phrase containing one).

    The first published English grammar was a Pamphlet for Grammar of 1586, written by William Bullokar with the stated goal of demonstrating that English was just as rule-based as Latin. Bullokar's grammar was faithfully modeled on William Lily's Latin grammar, Rudimenta Grammatices (1534), used in English schools at that time, having been "prescribed" for them in 1542 by Henry VIII. Bullokar wrote his grammar in English and used a "reformed spelling system" of his own invention; but much English grammar, for much of the century after Bullokar's effort, was written in Latin, especially by authors who were aiming to be scholarly. John Wallis's Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae(1685) was the last English grammar written in Latin. Even as late as the early 19th century, Lindley Murray, the author of one of the most widely used grammars of the day, was having to cite "grammatical authorities" to bolster the claim that grammatical cases in English are different from those in Ancient Greek or La...

    Grammar books

    1. Aarts, Bas (2011). Oxford Modern English Grammar. Oxford University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-19-953319-0. 2. Biber, Douglas; Johansson, Stig; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan; Finegan, Edward (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education Limited. p. 1203. ISBN 0-582-23725-4. 3. Biber, Douglas; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan (2002). Longman student grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education Limited. p. 487. ISBN 0-582-23726-2. 4. Bryant, Margaret (194...


    1. Adams, Valerie. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London: Longman. 2. Bauer, Laurie. (1983). English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. Fries, Charles Carpenter. (1952). The structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace. 4. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985/94). Spoken and written language. Deakin UniversityPress. 5. Huddleston, Rodney D. (1976). An introduction to English transformational syn...

    The Internet Grammar of English at UCL
    The Englicious website for school teachers developed by UCL
    English Grammar at the British Council
    • ye
    • yeyou ally'allyouseetc. (see above)
    • thou
    • we
  4. Dec 15, 2021 · The most popular dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Meanings and definitions of words with pronunciations and translations.

  5. English: [adjective] of, relating to, or characteristic of England, the English people, or the English language.

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