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    • What are important things happened 1971?

      • What Happened in 1971 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture 1971. 1971 This could well be the year that marked the start of the digital age when the Microprocessor was invented. 26th Amendment. ... Border battles between India and Pakistan. ... Disney World Opens. ... Qatar. ... United States - Apollo 14. ... Soviet Union - First Space Station. ... Mariner 9. ... Pentagon Papers. ... United Arab Emirates - UAE Established. ...
  1. Nov 05, 2019 · Post-WWII reforms like the New Deal and the ensuing consolidation of the labor movement increased income equality in the U.S., but the playing field started to tilt in the 1970s due to the forces ...

  2. exposures affect a village. The Timeline is probably best carried out in tandem with Tool 4, Mapping Village Hazards. If you use only one village map, it’s possible to split the work between two groups: one group can create the Timeline while the other group completes maps village hazards. Output A timeline showing the history of the village ...

    • Origins of Diplomacy
    • Diplomacy Conducted by Non-Diplomats
    • Evolution of Organisation of Diplomacy
    • Emergence of Embassies
    • Emergence of Multilateral Diplomacy
    • Notes

    We do not know when human societies first felt the need to communicate with each other,but it is safe to assume that they did so from the very earliest times. We know that diplomatic status existed very early and it is both evident and instructive why it should have been so. If it has been decided that it may be better to hear the message than to eat the messenger, then there have to be rules about who a legitimate messenger is, and there have to be sanctions which will ensure his uneatability. The earliest diplomats were a response to a felt need for a mechanism to convey messages between societiessafely and reliably. It is instructive to note that right from the beginning, diplomacy, even in its crudest forms, evolved in response to political needs reciprocally felt. It has continued and is continuing thus until today and we shall shortly look at some outstanding and complex examples of the process in action.

    Once diplomacy actually existed and was conceded to be irreplaceably useful, a reverse factor also became possible. The nature and functioning of the diplomatic machine at any particular historical moment could of itself shape the way in which principals – whoever they might be – conducted their exchanges. Thus it has occasionally occurred that functions which had developed within diplomacy came to create a particular international activity simply because they existed. We will, therefore, look at an example of that process as well. Of course, sometimes what the machine could not do, or could not be seen to be doing without damaging its basic function, could be done by other means – by Secret Services,for example, or by hired assassins. But sometimes it just meant that what could not be done was not done and opportunities were lost. For this purpose, perhaps one example will suffice. In the period just before 1914, when most foreign services were not equipped to handle commercial mat...

    Let us begin by giving some outstanding examples of the process where an unfolding international and diplomatic need evoked a corresponding addition or development in the machinery of diplomacy. This has certainly been the more usual process of modification. The growth of very complete – perhaps too complete – systems for the giving and checking of full powers was a reflection of the increasing significance of diplomatic activity and the greater risk of serious harm flowing from embassies being disavowed. The habit of issuing minute instructions, and the consequential almost hysterical desire on the part of others to know what they contained in advance of negotiations, was evoked both by the emergence of greater central control of diplomatic activity and by the greater potential damage a careless or over confident ambassador could cause(2). And both of these again reflected a rising level of diplomatic traffic. The evolution of foreign ministriesfollowed from the desire of rulers an...

    Embassies occurred ad hocinduced either by a particular issue about which information needed to be exchanged or by a ceremonial occasion – e.g. a funeral or an accession or a wedding. The stay with the host was likely to be relatively short, if luxurious, and the opportunities for spying or interference were naturally very restricted. The only practical answer was to keep a representative on the spot and have him report by courier – so secretly that a whole new range of possible ways of concealing documents came into vogue which make swallowing contraceptives full of drugs seem crude by comparison. The resident ambassadorthus appeared. Martin Wight said that he represented the “master-institution’’ of western diplomatic development(5). The rulers of the period, however, objected to his existence in the strongest terms and from time to time cleared them all out. But as much as they did not want them to report on their domestic situations or indeed to intervene in them, they wanted ju...

    Later periods produce further examples. Adjustment to the communications revolution of the 19th centuryand the creation of international organizations first in response to practical requirements and later answering to an overwhelming moral need to sustain peace when the contemporary conduct of war had produced unacceptable casualties. More recently, the diplomatic machine has needed to integrate the need for representation by a rising number of private international organisations concerned with humanitarian and environmental matters with the existing structure of states. In this case, the process is very difficult since the practical point of entry has been on the very edges of the machinery of diplomacy gained through a particular arm of the United Nations system. In this there is more than a resonance of the other form of diplomatic development which was mentioned at the outset: development characterised by shaping a response to a new need by reference to a pre-existing element in...

    1. Nancy Mitford, The Nancv Mitford Omnibus, London, 1986, p. 561. 2. See Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy, London, 1995, pp. 48 – 49 and 52 – 53. 3. See Hamilton and Langhorne, pp. 71 – 75. 4. See Macchiavelli, Guicciardini. Harold Nicolson, The Evolution of Diplomatic Method, Oxford, 1954, pp. 31 – 35, also commented on the “wolf-like habits” of Italian diplomacy. 5. M. Wight, System of States, London, 1977, p. 53 also p. 141. 6. The classic statement of this is in Philip de Commynes,Mémoires, Paris (n.d.), VI, pp. 198 – 199, ‘’It is not very safe to have ambassadors coming and going so much because they often discuss evil things. But it is necessary to send and receive them…My advice is that it is both politer and safer that they be well treated and (that) wise and trusty servants….attend them. For by this means it is possible to find out who goes to see them and to prevent malcontents from taking them news….For every messenger or ambassador sent to...

  3. List of Notable and Major California Earthquakes California's Earthquake History. Although earlier earthquakes have been documented—such as significant movement on the southern San Andreas fault all the way back to the 1600s—the earliest reported earthquake in California was on July 28, 1769, noted by members of a Spanish expedition to chart a land route from San Diego to Monterey.

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  5. timelines.issarice.com › wiki › Timeline_of_IBMTimeline of IBM - Timelines

    Jun 28, 2021 · 1930s. IBM manages to grow during the Great Depression. The company adds a new product unit, the electric writing machine division. 1940s. All IBM facilities become at the disposal of the United States government during the Second World War. IBM products expand into bombsights, rifles and engine parts.

  6. Sep 28, 2018 · HistoryLink is a project of the nonprofit organization History Ink, incorporated in 1997. The encyclopedia had a soft launch in 1998 and formally launched in 1999. It is heavily used by educators, politicians, scholars, journalists, history buffs, and students. Crowley was a unique Seattle personality who believed that understanding our history ...

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