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  1. Antikythera mechanism - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Antikythera_mechanism
    • History
    • Description
    • Mechanics
    • Reconstruction Efforts
    • Similar Devices in Ancient Literature
    • Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Discovery

    Captain Dimitrios Kontos (Δημήτριος Κοντός) and a crew of sponge divers from Symi island discovered the Antikythera shipwreck during the spring of 1900, and recovered artefacts during the first expedition with the Hellenic Royal Navy, in 1900–01. This wreck of a Roman cargo ship was found at a depth of 45 metres (148 ft) off Point Glyphadia on the Greek island of Antikythera. The team retrieved numerous large artefacts, including bronze and marble statues, pottery, unique glassware, jewellery...

    Origin

    The Antikythera mechanism is generally referred to as the first known analogue computer. The quality and complexity of the mechanism's manufacture suggests that it must have had undiscovered predecessors made during the Hellenistic period. Its construction relied on theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by Greek astronomers during the second century , and it is estimated to have been built in the late second century BCEor the early first century . In 2008, continued research by the...

    The original mechanism apparently came out of the Mediterranean as a single encrusted piece. Soon afterward it fractured into three major pieces. Other small pieces have broken off in the interim from cleaning and handling,and still others were found on the sea floor by the Cousteau expedition. Other fragments may still be in storage, undiscovered since their initial recovery; Fragment F was discovered in that way in 2005. Of the 82 known fragments, seven are mechanically significant and contain the majority of the mechanism and inscriptions. There are also 16 smaller parts that contain fractional and incomplete inscriptions.

    Information on the specific data gleaned from the ruins by the latest inquiries is detailed in the supplement to Freeth's 2006 Naturearticle.

    Proposed gear schemes

    Because of the large space between the mean Sun gear and the front of the case and the size of and mechanical features on the mean Sun gear it is very likely that the mechanism contained further gearing that either has been lost in or subsequent to the shipwreck or was removed before being loaded onto the ship.This lack of evidence and nature of the front part of the mechanism has led to numerous attempts to emulate what the Greeks of the period would have done and, of course, because of the...

    Accuracy

    Investigations by Freeth and Jones reveal that their simulated mechanism is not particularly accurate, the Mars pointer being up to 38° off at times (these inaccuracies occur at the nodal points of Mars' retrograde motion, and the error recedes at other locations in the orbit). This is not due to inaccuracies in gearing ratios in the mechanism, but rather due to inadequacies in the Greek theory of planetary movements. The accuracy could not have been improved until first Ptolemy put forth his...

    Cicero's De re publica, a 1st-century BC philosophical dialogue, mentions two machines that some modern authors consider as some kind of planetarium or orrery, predicting the movements of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known at that time. They were both built by Archimedes and brought to Rome by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus after the death of Archimedes at the siege of Syracuse in 212 BC. Marcellus had great respect for Archimedes and one of these machines was the only item he kept from the siege (the second was placed in the Temple of Virtue). The device was kept as a family heirloom, and Cicero has Philus (one of the participants in a conversation that Cicero imagined had taken place in a villa belonging to Scipio Aemilianus in the year 129 BC) saying that Gaius Sulpicius Gallus (consul with Marcellus's nephew in 166 BC, and credited by Pliny the Elderas the first Roman to have written a book explaining solar and lunar eclipses) gave both a "learned explana...

    On 17 May 2017, Google marked the 115th anniversary of the discovery with a Google Doodle. As of 2012[update], the Antikythera mechanism was displayed as part of a temporary exhibition about the Antikythera Shipwreck, accompanied by reconstructions made by Ioannis Theofanidis, Derek de Solla Price, Michael Wright, the Thessaloniki University and Dionysios Kriaris. Other reconstructions are on display at the American Computer Museum in Bozeman, Montana, at the Children's Museum of Manhattan in New York, at Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett in Kassel, Germany, and at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. The National Geographic documentary series Naked Science had an episode dedicated to the Antikythera Mechanism entitled "Star Clock BC" that aired on 20 January 2011. A documentary, The World's First Computer, was produced in 2012 by the Antikythera mechanism researcher and film-maker Tony Freeth. In 2012 BBC Four aired The Two-Thousand-Year-Old Computer; it was also aired on 3 A...

    Asimakopoulos, Fivos. "3D model simulation". Manos Roumeliotis's Simulation and Animation of the Antikythera Mechanism page. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project.
    The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. "Videos". YouTube. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
    "The Antikythera Mechanism Exhibitions". National Hellenic Research Foundation. Archived from the originalon 23 April 2012.
  2. Toy Story - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Toy_Story

    4 days ago · Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.The first installment in the Toy Story franchise, it was the first entirely computer-animated feature film, as well as the first feature film from Pixar.

  3. Tbilisi - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tbilisi

    2 days ago · Tbilisi (English: / t ə b ɪ ˈ l iː s i, t ə ˈ b ɪ l ɪ s i / tə-bih-LEE-see, tə-BIL-ih-see; Georgian: თბილისი ()), in some languages still known by its pre-1936 name Tiflis (/ ˈ t ɪ f l ɪ s / TIF-lis), is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

    • AD 455
    • 380 m (1,250 ft)
    • 770 m (2,530 ft)
    • Georgia
  4. Chinese Filipino - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Chinese_Filipino

    2 days ago · Chinese Filipinos of this background typically have Philippine Hokkien as a heritage language, though just as any Chinese Filipino may also normally speak Philippine English, Filipino/Tagalog or other Philippine languages (such as Visayan languages) and may also code-switch any and all of these languages, such as Taglish, Bislish, Hokaglish, etc.

  5. Translation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Translation

    2 days ago · Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or signed communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only ...

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