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  1. › accounting-unit-1Accounting Unit 1 Exam

    Dec 31, 2021 · 19/01/2021 · It was added to make the exam more relevant to accounting professionals, who use a lot of technology and integrated systems to do their work. Obviously the exam material can’t get platform-specific, so it deals with high level topics like how to use information systems, how to manage data, and how to automate financial tasks.

  2. Jan 09, 2022 · the assessment of accounting system on ethiopian … Accounting Principles - Standalone book 12th Edition by Jerry J. Weygandt (Author), Paul D. Kimmel (Author), Donald E. Kieso (Author) Free Education for all.

  3. Jan 12, 2022 · When demand is unitary elastic, it means that demand will change to the exact same degree as the price change. For example, if the price of Slab A is raised by 10%, there would be a 10% decrease ...

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  4. Dec 30, 2021 · However, no system is perfect or is going to be perfect so my central tenet is the maximum removal of bias. The party system is popular among the Scandinavian countries, and while they all have their concerns and issues (once again, we all have out problems), these are amongst the most democratic, functional and happy nations on our planet.

  5. Jan 11, 2022 · Richard Murphy on tax, accounting and political economy. Wow – thank you Sarah for popping up and proving that reductionist or erroneous thinking will blame MMT for everything rather than the causal dynamics of policies and practices that surrounds it (basically the stupidity of Government pursuing austerity and BREXIT for example or not being able to take a pandemic seriously).

  6. Jan 18, 2022 · Paradise Awaits at Live Summit! May 9-12, 2022 | San Diego, California. We've reserved an entire island, just for the accounting community. Join industry experts and fellow professionals for the first post-tax season event of the year. Pre-Register Today.

    • Value-Added Tax
    • Customs Duties/Import Tariffs
    • Excise Duties
    • Net Wealth Tax
    • Subscription Tax
    • General Registration Taxes
    • Commune (Municipalities) Real Estate Tax
    • Real Estate Levy For Luxembourg Funds Owning Luxembourg Real Estate Directly
    • Payroll Taxes
    • Social Security Contributions

    Supplies of goods and services, which are deemed to take place in Luxembourg, are subject to VAT at the standard rate of 17% (lowest standard VAT rate in the European Union) or, on certain transactions, at 14% (e.g. certain wines, advertising pamphlets, management and safekeeping of securities), 8% (e.g. supply of gas or electricity), or 3% (e.g. food [except most alcohol beverages]; pharmaceutical products; books [including e-books since the Circular n°793 released by the Luxembourg VAT authorities of 17 May 2019]; radio and television broadcasting services [except adult entertainment]; shoes, accessories, and clothes designed for children under the age of 14). Banking, financial, insurance, and reinsurance transactions are generally exempt activities. The VAT paid on costs that have a direct and immediate link with these transactions cannot be recovered except when related to services performed for persons established outside the European Union. Other VAT-exempt transactions, such...

    Based on a European Regulation, goods entering within the territory of the European Union may be subject to customs duties/import tariffs. Applicable rates are based on the nature and on the quantity of the products.

    In addition to VAT, some products are subject to specific excise duties. In Luxembourg, these products are electricity, mineral oils, manufactured tobacco, and alcohol. Excise duties are not based on the sale price of the products but on the quantity. Excise duty becomes chargeable at the time, and in the EU member state, of release for consumption. Release for consumption occurs in any of the following instances: 1. The departure of excise goods from a duty suspension arrangement. 2. The holding of excise goods outside a duty suspension arrangement where excise duty has not been levied, pursuant to the applicable provisions of Community law and national legislation. 3. The production of excise goods outside a duty suspension arrangement. 4. The importation of excise goods, including irregular importation, unless the excise goods are placed, immediately upon importation, under a duty suspension arrangement.

    NWT regime

    Both Luxembourg resident companies and Luxembourg branches of non-resident companies are subject to NWT on their net wealth, based on prescribed valuation methods. The following scale of rates applies for NWT: 1. On a taxable base of up to EUR 500 million: 0.5%. 2. On the taxable base exceeding EUR 500 million: NWT of EUR 2.5 million, plus 0.05% on the component of the NWT base above EUR 500 million. No cap is set. In general, assets are to be taken into account at market value (except for re...

    Minimum NWT

    A minimum NWT charge applies for all corporate entities having their statutory seat or central administration in Luxembourg. Entities with aggregated fixed financial assets, transferable securities, inter-company receivables, and cash in excess of both 90% of their total gross assets and EUR 350,000 will be subject to a minimum NWT charge of EUR 4,815. All other corporations with a statutory seat or central administration in Luxembourg (including securitisation vehicles, Société d'Investissem...

    NWT reduction

    The CIT due in a given year N-1 (e.g. 2018) represents the limit for the NWT reduction for the following year N (e.g. 2019). The CIT to be taken into consideration for the limit of NWT reduction is the amount due, including the employment fund contribution, before any tax credits. As a second limit, the NWT reduction is limited by the minimum NWT as of 2016 (and to the minimum CIT until 2015). In other words, NWT cannot be reduced down to 0 by constituting a NWT special reserve. The minimum N...

    Investment funds are subject to subscription tax (at various rates) on their total net assets valued at the last day of each quarter. Institutional funds and monetary funds are subject to an annual rate of 0.01% and the other funds to an annual rate of 0.05%. Funds of institutional funds and monetary institutional funds are exempt from subscription tax. However, a graduated rate reduction will apply as of 1 January 2021 for fund vehicles covered by the law of 17 December 2010 relating to the undertakings for collective investments (Part I and Part II of the 2010 Undertakings for Collective Investment [UCI] regime) that invest in 'sustainable' investments, tabulated as follows: 'Sustainable' assets are those as defined in Art. 3 EU Regulation 2020/852. Investment level percentages will need to be formally certified by an auditor and transmitted to the indirect tax authorities (i.e. Administration de l’Enregistrement, des Domaines et de la TVA) together with the subscription tax retur...

    A fixed registration duty of EUR 75 is levied on certain transactions involving Luxembourg legal entities (i.e. incorporation, amendment to the articles of association, and transfer of seat to Luxembourg).

    Communes (municipalities) levy an annual real estate tax, the basis of which is the unitary value of real estate, which represents its estimated value in 1941. The basic rate varies from 0.7% to 1% of the unitary value, according to the category of property, and is multiplied by a coefficient, which varies with communes and different types of property. For commercial property, the coefficient in Luxembourg City is 750%, which should be applied to 1% of the unitary value. The real estate tax is deductible for CIT purposes.

    The real estate levy

    The 2021 Budget Law introduced a new tax, termed a real estate levy (prélèvement immobilier). It will, however, apply only in the restricted circumstances of a Luxembourg investment fund vehicle that: 1. is regulated under the 2007 specialised investment fund (SIF) regime, or the 2016 reserved alternative investment fund (RAIF) regime, or Part II of the 2010 UCI regime 2. has its own legal persona, unless it has the société en commanditesimple (SCS) legal form, the combined effect of which is...

    The wider real estate levy reporting requirement

    It should, however, be noted that, the legislation provides for a far broader reporting requirement. All Luxembourg investment fund vehicles that meet the conditions noted above regarding their applicable regulatory regime and legal form (i.e. which are not FCPs, SCSs, or SCSps) must, by 31 May 2022, make a special report on a prescribed form giving details of any Luxembourg real estate that they have owned at any time in 2020 or 2021, irrespective of whether or not it has yielded any gross r...

    Payroll taxes have to be withheld by the employer. The top payroll tax withholding rate is 42%. A solidarity tax of a maximum of 9% of tax must also be applied.

    Compulsory social security contributions for employees are listed below: 1. For sickness: 3.05% of gross periodic remuneration, which is limited to a monthly ceiling of EUR 10,709.97 (annual ceiling estimated at EUR 128,519.64 as of 1 January 2020). 2. For pension: 8% of gross remuneration, which is limited to a monthly ceiling of EUR 10,709.97 (annual ceiling estimated at EUR 128,519.64 as of 1 January 2020). The social security contributions have to be withheld by the employer from the employee's gross salary. Certain multilateral and bilateral social security agreements protect the interests of temporarily resident employees. Employees (residents and non-residents) paying Luxembourg social security contributions are subject to the so-called dependency contribution on their gross professional income, reduced by EUR 535.50 per month (i.e. estimated at EUR 6,426.00 as of 1 January 2020). Net portfolio income and taxable capital gains of Luxembourg resident taxpayers are also subject...

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