Jun 01, 2021 · Baroque architecture is a highly opulent style of building, design, and art that originated in italy during the 17th century and spread to the rest of europe, and eventually, the u.s. it's characterized by extremely detailed forms, marble, large scale decoration, and bright colors.
Italian Baroque Architecture Italy, the cradle of Baroque and a key destination of those on the Grand Tour , produced in addition to a proportionate number of good professional architects a quartet who rate as excellent: Bernini , Borromini , Pietro da Cortona , and Guarino Guarini .
Baroque architecture makes use of curves, curved spaces, and undulating walls. Some daring interpretations in the use of the classical orders show in façade design. However, when used as an adjective, “baroque” is also an epithet which can be used in a deprecatory sense, meaning an excess of decoration, or ineffective complexity.
- Roman Baroque. As the Catholic Church found itself in need of a way to proactively manifest its influence and regain lost souls all over Europe, it turned renewed attention to church architecture, requiring new churches to appeal as much to the emotions as to the intellect of the faithful, ultimately persuading them into unconditional trust and faith in the Catholic Church.
- French Baroque. Contrary to Rome’s drastic, reform-driven change in style, French architecture in the 17th century transitioned between Renaissance and its own interpretation of the Baroque more naturally, although the driving force behind the change was the same desire to reaffirm the claim to power of the ruling party — namely the monarchs of the House of Bourbon.
- Early English Baroque. The beginning of the English Barqoue period was heralded by a major catastrophe: the Great Fire of London in 1666. It raged for four days (2-5 September 1666) in the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, and destroyed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul’s Cathedral and most of the buildings of the City authorities.
- Later English Baroque. After Wren’s death in 1723, a new generation of architects emerged, some of whom even came from amid the ranks of his former employees.
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Mar 31, 2013 · Baroque Architecture and Eroticism. The Baroque period of architecture began in Italy, during the 16 th century and spread to most of Europe. The style of Baroque architecture can be defined and express through the more detailed elements added to the previous style of Renaissance. The basic design of the architecture is similar, consisting of ...
Summary of Baroque Art and Architecture In 1527 Europe, religious dominance had the power to direct and inform the content and climate of society's artistic output. At the time, a backlash against the conservative Protestant Reformation was compelled by the Catholic Church to re-establish its importance and grandeur within society.
- Precursors of Baroque Architecture
- Distinguishing Features of Baroque Architecture
- Italian Baroque
- Italy and Beyond
- France: The Road to Versailles
The seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries marked the Baroque period in Europe and the Americas. The period was characterized by a fluidity of design accented by a sense of drama. The architecture of the period departed from the traditionalist forms seen in Renaissance designs and moved toward grander structures with flowing, curving shapes. Baroque architects often incorporated landscape design with their plans and were responsible for many of the great gardens, plazas and courtyards of Italy. Beginning in the early seventeenth century in Italy, Baroque architecture took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. The term ‘Baroque’ was actually a reference to deformity, and Borromini’s church of St. Carlo was evidence of that: unhinged and perverse. New architectural concerns for color, light and shade, sculptural values and intensity characteri...
Michelangelo’s late Roman buildings, particularly Saint Peter’s Basilica, may be considered precursors of baroque architecture, as the design of the latter achieves a colossal unity that was previously unknown. His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the facade of the Jesuit church Il Gesu,which leads directly to the most important church facade of the early baroque, Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno. In the seventeenth century, the baroque style spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits.
Important features of baroque architecture include: 1. long, narrow naves are replaced by broader, occasionally circular forms 2. dramatic use of light, either strong light-and-shade contrasts, chiaroscuroeffects (e.g. church of Weltenburg Abbey), or uniform lighting by means of several windows (e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey) 3. opulent use of ornaments (puttos(cherubs) made of wood (often gilded), plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing) 4. large-scale ceiling frescoes 5. the external facade is often characterized by a dramatic central projection 6. the interior is often no more than a shell for painting and sculpture (especially in the late baroque) 7. illusory effects like trompe l’oeil and the blending of painting and architecture 8. in the Bavarian, Czech lands, Poland, and Ukranian baroque, pear domes are ubiquitous 9. Marian and Holy Trinity columns are erected in Catholic countries, often in thanksgiving for ending a plague
Overview The Italian Baroque was possessed by a spirit of exuberance that stemmed from the Mannerist conventional style. It first came to surface in the 1630s and soon encompassed all of Europe. Carlo Maderno The sacred architecture of the Baroque period had its beginnings in the Italian paradigm of the basilica with the crossed dome and nave. One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. Maderno’s Santa Susanna is very much like Giacomo della Porta’s Il Gesú in that, “Both are two stories high, crowned by pediments; in both the lateral extension of the lower story forced by the side chapels is masked and joined to the central block by consoles; in both, the movement of the orders toward the center is dramatized by an increase in projection.” The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, domed roofs, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add...
Overview The eighteenth century saw the capital of Europe’s architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris. The Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. The most talented architects active in Rome—Francesco de Sanctis (Spanish Steps, 1723) and Filippo Raguzzini (Piazza Sant’Ignazio, 1727)—had little influence outside their native country, as did numerous practitioners of the Sicilian Baroque, including Giovanni Battista Vaccarini, Andrea Palma, and Giuseppe Venanzio Marvuglia. The last phase of Baroque architecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi Vanvitelli’s Caserta Palace, reputedly the largest building erected in Europe in the eighteenth century. Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skillfully related to the landscape. At Naples and Caserta, Vanvitelli practiced a sober classicizing academic style, with equal attention to aesthetics and engineering, a style that would mak...
Overview The center of baroque secular architecture was France, where the open three wing layout of the palace was established as the canonical solution as early as the 16th century. But it was the Palais du Luxembourg, by Salomon de Brosse that determined the sober and classicizing direction that French Baroque architecture was to take. For the first time, the corps de logiswas emphasized as the representative main part of the building, while the side wings were treated as hierarchically inferior and appropriately scaled down. The medieval tower has been completely replaced by the central projection in the shape of a monumental three-storey gateway. De Brosse’s melding of traditional French elements (e.g., lofty mansard roofs and complex roofline) with extensive Italianate quotations (e.g., ubiquitous rustication, derived from Palazzo Pitti in Florence) came to characterize the Louis XIII style. François Mansart – Château de Maisons Arguably the most accomplished formulator of the...
Valletta, the capital city of Malta, was laid out in 1566 to fortify the Knights of Rhodes, who had taken over the island when they were driven from Rhodes by Islamic armies. The city, designed by Francesco Laparelli on a grid plan, and built up over the next century, remains a particularly coherent example of Baroque urbanism. Its massive fortifications, which were considered state of the art, until the modern age, are also largely intact. Valletta became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.
There is little Baroque about Dutch architecture of the seventeenth century. The architecture of the first republic in Northern Europe was meant to reflect democratic values by quoting extensively from classical antiquity. Like contemporary developments in England, Dutch Palladianism is marked by sobriety and restraint. Two leading architects, Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post, used such eclectic elements as giant-order pilasters, gable roofs, central pediments, and vigorous steeples in a coherent combination that anticipated Christopher Wren’s Classicism. The most ambitious constructions of the period included the town hall in Amsterdam (1646) and Maastricht (1658), designed by Campen and Post, respectively. On the other hand, the residences of the House of Orange are closer to a typical burgher mansion than to a royal palace. Two of these, Huis ten Bosch and Mauritshuis,are symmetrical blocks with large windows, stripped of ostentatious Baroque flourishes and mannerisms. The same a...
Baroque Architecture in the Southern Netherlands developed rather differently than in the Protestant North. Important architectural projects were set up in the spirit of the Counter Reformation. Flemish architects such as Wenzel Coebergher were trained in Italy and their works were inspired by the works of architects such as Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta. Coebergher’s most important project was the Basilica of Our Fair Lady of Scherpenheuvel, which he designed as the center of a new town in the form of a heptagon. The influence of Peter Paul Rubens on architecture was very important. With his book I Palazzi di Genovahe introduced novel Italian models for the conception of profane buildings and decoration in the Southern Netherlands. The Courtyard and Portico of his own house in Antwerp (Rubenshuis) are good examples of his architectural activity. He also took part in the decoration of the Antwerp Jesuit Church (now Carolus-Borromeuskerk) were he introduced a lavi...
Baroque aesthetics, whose influence was so potent in mid-17th century France, made little impact in England during the Protectorate and the first English Restoration. For a decade between the death of Inigo Jones in 1652 and Christopher Wren’s visit to Paris in 1665 there was no English architect of the accepted premier class. Unsurprisingly, general interest in European architectural developments was slight. It was Wren who presided over the genesis of the English Baroque manner, which differed from the continental models by clarity of design and subtle taste for classicism. Following the Great Fire of London, Wren rebuilt 53 churches, where Baroque aesthetics are apparent primarily in dynamic structure and multiple changing views. His most ambitious work was St Paul’s Cathedral, which bears comparison with the most effulgent domed churches of Italy and France. In this majestically proportioned edifice, the Palladian tradition of Inigo Jones is fused with contemporary continental s...
- What Was The Baroque period?
- Baroque Art
- Baroque Architecture and Interior Design
Named after barroco—a Portuguese term for an irregularly shaped pearl—the Baroque periodis defined by the grandeur and opulence of its art and architecture. With roots in Rome, the movement spread across Italy and other European countries between 1600 and 1750, becoming particularly popular in France, Spain, and Austria. As the Baroque period overlapped with the Italian Renaissance, it is not surprising that the two movements shared some stylistic similarities. Both Baroque and Renaissance artists employed realism, rich color, and religious or mythological subject matter, while architects working in both styles favored balance and symmetry. What sets the Baroque style apart from its Renaissance counterpart, however, is its extravagance—a characteristic evident in both its art and architecture.
While the subject matter and even style can vary between Baroque paintings, most pieces from this period have one thing in common: drama. In the work of well-known painters like Caravaggio and Rembrandt, an interest in drama materializes as intense contrasts between beaming light and looming shadows. Baroque artists like Gentileschi, Poussin, and Rubens achieved a heightened sense of drama through movement. Often, this action-packed iconography was inspired by tales from the bible and stories...
Figurative bronze and marble sculptures produced during this period depict an interest in dynamism. Through swirling silhouettes, twisted contours, and flowing drapery, sculptors like Berniniwere able to evoke movement. Added elements like water fixtures often enhanced this theatrical approach. Like Renaissance statues—including Michelangelo's iconic David—Baroque sculptures were often intended to adorn stately buildings. They also were commissioned for other grandiose settings, like gildedch...
Similar to art of the era, Baroque interiors conveyed an interest in over-the-top grandeur. Furniture and other decorative art objects frequently featured scrolling—a patterned design reminiscent of spiraling foliage—and other elements inspired by the natural world. Similarly, putti—Cupid-like figures—often adorned tapestries and ceiling paintings. As expected, the materials used to craft these interiors exuded luxury, as evident in the “rich velvet and damask furnishings and gilt-wood and ma...
Baroque architecture is also characterized by ornamentation. Often, the façades of Baroque buildings are adorned with intricate relief carvings, gilded accents, and columns—namely, Solomonic columns, whose corkscrew aesthetic was favored by architects from Spain to Austria. Architects all over Europe also topped many Baroque basilicas, churches, and other edifices withdomes. Besides oval domes, which were erected all over the continent, the preferred style of domes typically varied by region,...
Though the Baroque style emerged centuries ago, it remains one of the most beloved movements in art history. Whether gazing at a priceless collection of paintings in the Louvreor throwing a coin in Rome's popular Trevi Fountain, the lasting legacy of Baroque art and architecture is as obvious as its opulence.
Oct 04, 2011 · Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany. In England, the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America.