Nov 30, 2016 · What Are the Uses of Doxycycline for Dogs? Doxycycline is typically used to treat bacterial infections and infections caused by microorganisms. It is not effective against viral infections or...
- Medical uses
- Side effects
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that can be used to treat bacterial infections in dogs. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means it can be used to fight multiple types of bacteria. Doxycycline is often prescribed for dogs to treat tick borne diseases like Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis. It can also treat infections of E. coli, urinary tract infections, and chlamydia along with many other canine bacterial infections. If your veterinarian has prescribed doxycycline for your dog, it is important that you follow their guidelines carefully and give your dog the medication for the full regimen that your vet advises. If you notice side effects, inform your veterinarian so they can create a treatment plan and make your dog more comfortable. Here is what you should know about the uses, dosage, and side effects of doxycycline for dogs. As a broad-spectrum antibiotic, doxycycline can treat infections from many different kinds of bacteria in dogs, though it is not effective for treating viral or fungal infections. It may be prescribed as a preventative measure while treating one infection to prevent a secondary bacterial infection from occurring. Your veterinarian may also prescribe doxycycline to treat one of the following conditions in your dog.
The common dosage of doxycycline for dogs is 2 mg to 5 mg per pound of body weight given every 12 to 24 hours. This depends on which type of infection is being treated, and your veterinarian may vary the dosage depending on your dogs specific needs. Doxycycline is usually given as a long-term treatment, and it is important to continue to give your dog the medication until your veterinarian advises you otherwise, even if symptoms improve.
It isnt necessary to give doxycycline to your dog with food, though doing so may reduce some side effects such as nausea. Your dog should have plenty of fresh water available at all times for the duration of the doxycycline regimen. It is best to stick to a schedule and give your dog the medication at the same time every day.
Side effects of doxycycline in dogs are fairly rare. Most adult dogs tolerate the drug well. The side effects that are seen most commonly in dogs include nausea, vomiting, or difficulty swallowing or breathing. Nausea can be reduced if the medication is given to the dog with food. Swallowing or breathing problems can be reduced by following the tablet up with a small amount of water. If gastrointestinal problems become severe, you should contact your veterinarian, as this can be a sign of doxycycline overdose.
Doxycycline can cause limb deformities in puppies that are still in the womb, which is also risky for pregnant mother dogs. Sometimes a veterinarian will decide that the risks are outweighed by the benefits of the antibiotic. Doxycycline can also interact poorly with other drugs, so make sure your vet is aware of any other medications your pet is taking. As with almost all medications, there is a risk of allergic reaction that can lead to anaphylaxis. If you see signs of an allergic reaction, contact your veterinarian immediately.
- How It Works
- Storage Information
- Missed dose?
- Side Effects and Drug Reactions
Doxycycline binds to specific cell parts (ribosomes) of the bacteria and inhibit the protein synthesis, thus not allowing the bacteria to grow and divide. The process of shutting the protein synthesis down is not rapid. For this reason treatments using Doxycycline are generally termed as a long term treatment. It takes some time after the process is shut down until NSAIDs work by reducing the enzyme COX-2. COX-2. these enzymes are involved in the formation of prostaglandins which cause swelli...
Store in a tightly sealed container at room temperature. Refrigerate unreconstituted oral gel. Once reconstituted, refrigerate and use within three days.
If you miss a dose, give the dose as soon as possible. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose, and continue with the regular schedule. Do not give your pet two doses at once.
Doxycycline may result in these side effects: 1. Nausea 2. Vomiting 3. Swallowing difficultiesIf Doxycycline makes your pet nauseous, try administering it with food. If it makes your pet have breathing or swallowing problems, follow tablet with a small amount of water. Doxycycline may react with these drugs: 1. Antacids 2. Anticoagulants 3. Bactericidals 4. Barbiturates 5. Cathartics 6. Gastro-intestinal protectants 7. Aminophylline 8. Digoxin 9. Insulin 10. Iron dextran 11. Kaolin/Pectin 12....
Doxycycline Hyclate is a bacteriostatic antibiotic used by veterinarians for the treatment of infections such as Lyme disease, Chlamydia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis and bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. Doxycycline Hyclate is not FDA approved for use in veterinary medicine; however, it is a commonly accepted practice to use this medication in dogs and cats.
Unfortunately, prophylactic or preventative use of antibiotics for kennel cough – while appealing in theory! – is generally not recommended. “Kennel cough” (which is also referred to as Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex, or CIRDC) can be caused by bacteria or viruses – and regardless of the cause, the clinical signs are ...
—Mutant/normal dog, dose reduction of 25% Antibacterial Agents Doxycycline 4 Doxycycline is transported by the MDR1 gene product (P-glycoprotein). However, the drug has a wide therapeutic window.13 4 combination MDR1 mutation —The author is aware of strong clinical evidence supporting safe treatment of numerous MDR1 mutant/mutant dogs
- How it works. Doxycycline is an antibiotic used to treat a wide range of infections caused by susceptible gram negative, gram positive, anaerobic, and other bacteria.
- Upsides. Active against a wide range of bacteria including some gram negative and positive bacteria, anaerobes, and some parasites (such as Balantidium coli and Entamoeba species).
- Downsides. If you are between the ages of 18 and 60, take no other medication or have no other medical conditions, side effects you are more likely to experience include
- Bottom Line. Doxycycline is an effective antibiotic that treats a wide range of infections. However, it is not usually recommended for children aged less than eight nor in pregnant women in the last half of pregnancy.
Dec 01, 2020 · Doxycycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as acne, urinary tract infections, intestinal infections, respiratory infections, eye infections, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, periodontitis (gum disease), and others. Doxycycline is also used to treat blemishes, bumps, and acne-like lesions caused by rosacea. It will not treat facial redness caused by rosacea.
- Doryx, Alodox, Monodox, Oracea, Morgidox
- Tetracycline antibiotics, Miscellaneous antimalarials
After confirming that the victim is medically stable, physicians should begin a primary assessment by taking a history. Several medical conditions place a patient at high risk of wound and rabies virus infection from a dog bite (Table 1).7 Information that can help determine the patient's risk of infection includes the time of the injury, whether the animal was provoked, and the general health, immunization status and current location of the animal.7 In some locations, notification of animal control or local law enforcement may be necessary. Also, the patient's tetanus immunization status, current medications and allergies must be noted in the record.7 During the physical examination, the measurement and classification of the wound (laceration, puncture, crushing or avulsion), and the range of motion of the affected and adjacent areas should be documented. Nerve, vascular and motor function, including pertinent negative findings, should be recorded. Diagrams and photographs are useful, especially in cases with irregular wounds or signs of infection,9 and in cases that may involve litigation, such as a wound inflicted by an unleashed dog.7
Timely and copious irrigation with normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution may reduce the rate of infection markedly. Injection of the tissue with irrigant solution should be avoided, because this can spread the infection.5,7 Necrotic or devitalized tissues should be removed, but care must be taken not to debride so much tissue as to cause problems with wound closure and appearance.9 Baseline radiographs may be obtained, especially with puncture wounds near a joint or bone.5 Dogs can play an important role in family life. As the canine population grows, so does the need for guidance to prevent dog bites. Prevention can begin with information from primary care professionals and veterinarians. Because a large percentage of dog bite victims are younger than 14 years, it is appropriate to begin prevention education with children and parents. Families acquiring a pet should consider their home environment and be told that a dog younger than four months is preferred. An older dog should not be introduced into a household with children because the dog's behavior cannot be predicted. Prospective dog owners should obtain breed-specific information before getting a new dog. Measures for preventing dog bites are given in Table 5.2 Dogs have a tendency to chase a moving object. Therefore, children need to learn to avoid running and screaming in the presence of a dog. Dogs should not be greeted by presenting an outstretched hand. Do not pet a dog without letting it sniff you first. Hugging and kissing a dog express a sense of submission to the animal, which is confusing because the animal is used to viewing humans as being in charge.4 This confusion may lead to more aggressive behavior by the animal. Educate children and adults to remain calm when threatened by a dog. Direct eye contact should be avoided because the dog may interpret that as aggression. Standing still (like a tree) with feet together, fists folded under the neck, and arms placed against the chest is recommended. If knocked to the ground by a dog, recommendations include lying face down and becoming still like a log, with legs together and fists behind the neck with forearms covering the ears. If a dog perceives no movement, it will lose interest and go away.
Only 15 to 20 percent of dog bite wounds become infected. Crush injuries, puncture wounds and hand wounds are more likely to become infected than scratches or tears.9 Most infected dog bite wounds yield polymicrobial organisms.8 Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common aerobic organisms, occurring in 20 to 30 percent of infected dog bite wounds.4,5 Other possible aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus species, Corynebacterium species, Eikenella corrodens and Capnocytophaga canimorsus (formerly known as DF-2).5,7,8 Anaerobic organisms, including Bacteroides fragilis, Fuso-bacterium species and Veillonella parvula, have also been implicated in infected dog bites. One review article8 identified 28 species of aerobic organisms and 12 species of anaerobic organisms isolated from dog bite wounds.
Treatment with prophylactic antibiotics for three to seven days is appropriate for dog bite wounds, unless the risk of infection is low or the wound is superficial.4,5,7 If frank cellulitis is evident, a 10- to 14-day course of treatment is more appropriate.9 Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) is the antibiotic of choice for a dog bite. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, doxycycline (Vibramycin) is an acceptable alternative, except for children younger than eight years and pregnant women. Erythromycin can also be used, but the risk of treatment failure is greater because of antimicrobial resistance.7,10 Other acceptable combinations include clindamycin (Cleocin) and a fluoroquinolone in adults or clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) in children.11 When compliance is a concern, daily intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone (Rocephin) are appropriate.7 Occasionally, outpatient treatment of infection fails and the patient needs to be hospitalized and treated intravenously with antibiotics. Reasons for hospitalization include systemic signs of infection; fever or chills; severe or rapidly spreading cellulitis or advancement of cellulitis past one joint; and involvement of a bone, joint, tendon or nerve.5 Consultation with a maxillofacial or plastic surgeon may be required if the patient has a facial or other highly visible wound. For patients hospitalized with cellulitis or abscess formation in an extremity, surgical consultation should be considered immediately because of the risk of worsening infection and tissue damage. Depending on community practices and the location of the injury, general orthopedic surgery, hand surgery or general surgery consultation may be appropriate. Tetanus immunization and tetanus immune globulin should be administered, if appropriate. Recommendations for tetanus prophylaxis are given in Table 2.12 Patients who have been bitten by a dog should be instructed to elevate and immobilize the involved area. Most bite wounds should be reexamined in 24 to 48 hours, especially bites to the hands.9
The patient's risk of infection with rabies virus must be addressed immediately. Because of the serious risk to the public of a rabid animal on the loose, it is important to document the conditions surrounding the attack. As a result of widespread vaccination of dogs against rabies in the United States, the most common source of the rabies virus is now wild animals, specifically raccoons, skunks and bats.7 Nonetheless, there are still reported cases of rabies virus associated with a dog bite.13 Patients with a bite from a nonprovoked dog should be considered at higher risk for rabies infection than patients with a bite from a provoked dog. If the dog owner is reliable and can confirm that the animal's vaccination against rabies virus is current, the dog may be observed at the owner's home. Observation by a veterinarian is appropriate when the vaccination status of the animal is unknown. If the animal cannot be quarantined for 10 days, the dog bite victim should receive rabies immunization.
Three types of rabies vaccine are currently available in the United States: human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV), rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCEC). All are formulated for intramuscular use, but HDCV is also available for intradermal use.14 All forms seem to have equivalent safety and efficacy.14,15 Once the vaccine series has begun, it is usually completed with the same vaccine type. Vaccine is administered on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28.
RIG is administered once and provides rapid immunity with a half-life of 21 days.14 RIG is not administered to patients who have been previously vaccinated.14
R. JOHN PRESUTTI, D.O., is a consultant and associate program director in the Department of Family Medicine at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Fla. Dr. Presutti is also an assistant professor of Family Medicine at Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minn. Dr. Presutti received his osteopathic medical degree from Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., and completed a residency in family medicine at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville. He is a diplomate in family medicine and osteopathic family medicine.