Jul 01, 2014 · Charles Darwin, while trying to devise a general theory of heredity from the observations of animal and plant breeders, discovered that domesticated mammals possess a distinctive and unusual suite of heritable traits not seen in their wild progenitors. Some of these traits also appear in domesticated birds and fish. The origin of Darwin’s “domestication syndrome” has remained a conundrum ...
- Adam S. Wilkins, Adam S. Wilkins, Richard W. Wrangham, W. Tecumseh Fitch
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The life expectancy for people with ID has dramatically improved over the past few decades. Twenty years ago, people with Down syndrome were not expected to live past age 35. Today, these same people would live to 55 years of age.
- Regions of Plant Domestication in The Americas
- Changes Associated with Domestication
- Genetic Control of Traits of The Domestication Syndrome
- Multiple Domestication and Multiple Origins of Domestication Traits
- Past Domestication as A Guide to Future Improvement of New World Crops
Domestication is generally considered to be the end-point of a continuum that starts with exploitation of wild plants, continues through cultivation of plants selected from the wild but not yet genetically different from wild plants, and terminates in fixation, through human selection, of morphological and hence genetic differences distinguishing a domesticate from its wild progenitor. These differences constitute the domestication syndrome and generally render the domesticate less capable of survival in the wild, thus dependent on man for its growth and reproduction. Features of the domestication syndrome include loss of dispersal, increase in size (especially of the harvested part of the plant), loss of seed dormancy and loss of chemical or mechanical protection against herbivores. Crops vary within and between species in their degrees of domestication. All known accessions of Capsicum pubescenshave large fruits that have lost their dispersal mechanism, and this species occurs onl...
Four regions are now generally considered to have been independent areas of crop domestication in the Americas: eastern North America, Mesoamerica, the Andean region and the tropical lowlands of South America. Table 1shows the approximate dates of the first appearance in the archaeological record of some of the cultigens associated with each region.
Schwanitz (1966), Purseglove (1968) and Hawkes (1983), among others, have provided comprehensive treatments of the changes occurring under domestication, so discussion here will centre on data gathered since these reviews.
Studies based on Mendelian genetics
Until recently, the genetic control of features distinguishing domesticated plants from their wild relatives had to be investigated by the classic Mendelian technique of crossing parents with different phenotypes and analysing ratios in the segregating progeny. Many of the qualitative changes associated with domestication were thereby found to be controlled by one or a few major genes, for example loss of seed dispersal and change to determinate habit in domesticated common bean (Koinange et...
DNA markers and the study of quantitative trait loci
A major advance in the study of the genetics of domestication came with the development of DNA markers, which made it possible to produce saturated linkage maps for many crops and then to determine, by looking for associations with these markers, how many and which regions of the genome carry factors affecting a given quantitative trait (quantitative trait loci or QTLs). In this way, 28 different QTLs affecting fruit weight in tomato have been located, though alleles at just one of these (fw2...
Orthologies of genes involved in domestication
The markers used to construct a saturated linkage map of one species may be used to construct linkage maps for other crops in the same family. By this means, it has been possible to compare the position of QTLs involved in the domestication syndrome in maize, sorghum and rice (Paterson et al., 1995), and in aubergine, tomato and chile pepper (Doganlar et al., 2002). In both groups, QTLs controlling similar traits map to the same conserved regions of the genome, suggesting that changes at the...
A feature of crop domestication in the Americas is the number of examples of independent domestication of different species in the same genus, or occasionally of the same species (Table 2). New World crops are therefore potentially useful resources for investigating the still-unresolved question of whether similar changes have been selected independently, resulting in parallel or convergent evolution of the domestication syndrome, or whether different mutations have been selected in different regions, so that similar phenotypes are actually controlled by different genotypes. Prior to the advent of molecular genetics, this question could be addressed only by crossing the related domesticates. If the F1 shows the wild-type phenotype, then the two domesticates are assumed to carry mutations at different, complementary, loci and thus to have evolved the trait in question independently. Cheng (1989) crossed a non-pungent bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) with a non-pungent accession of the c...
The developing understanding of the genetic control of various traits of the domestication syndrome and of the mode of action of some of the genes involved may assist in realizing the potential of some of the minor domesticates of the New World. Crops such as goldenberry (Physalis peruviana), pepino (Solanum muricatum) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) command high prices in markets in some developed countries (National Research Council, 1989), so are potentially useful export-earners for the developing countries in which they originated. Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) have attracted the attention of commercial companies in developed countries, but problems of reliably producing large quantities of fruit have led to loss of potentially valuable export markets (National Research Council, 1989; Smith et al., 1992). These and other lesser known domesticates need further improvement to adapt them to a wider range of environments, modify their morphol...
I am grateful to Duncan Vaughan and Charles Heiser for supplying some unpublished observations, and to three anonymous referees for helpful comments and suggestions of additional references to cite. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by the OECD.
- Barbara Pickersgill
Apr 15, 2021 · In general, domestic cats have an average life expectancy of between 14 and 16 years. This is assuming they stay indoors. Cats who have access outside and can roam freely have a rather shorter lifespan because of the risks when they go out. They could be hit by a car, attacked by other animals, or get exposed to deadly diseases like leukemia.
Platelet life span studies in dogs with ITP have not been reported, but studies in humans with ITP showed a reduction of the lifespan from normally 7-10 days to minutes. ITP can be classified as primary or secondary based on underlying etiologies.
The disease can affect people of any age, but usually starts around the age of 60 and in inherited cases around the age of 50. The average survival from onset to death is two to four years, though this can vary, and about 10% survive longer than 10 years, and death is usually due to respiratory failure.
Average US Life Expectancy Statistics by Gender, Ethnicity, State.The global life expectancy at birth for women is 75 years old and for men, it’s 70 years old. However, in America, the average life expectancy for women is 81 years and for men 77 years. Unfortunately, due to Covid-19, we will probably see a decrease in how long people live worldwide. In this definitive guide, we explore all ...
Mar 15, 2019 · The BODE Index. This staging system measures how much emphysema impacts your daily life. It looks at four main areas: Body mass index(B).This describes how much body fat you have compared to your ...
Sep 12, 2020 · The average Yorkie life expectancy is between 12.6 and 14.5 years. 6, 3 However, it is not uncommon for Yorkshire Terriers to live to 17 or 18 years if cared for properly. These findings are based on two studies. The first study, 6 conducted in the UK in 2010, gathered owner-reported information on over 15,000 dogs to determine age and cause of death.