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What are the different types of carcinogens in cancer?
- 1 physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; 2 chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant); and 3 biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
February 2018 Aflatoxins Aflatoxins pose a serious health risk to humans and livestock Aflatoxins are poisonous substances produced by certain kinds of fungi (moulds) that are found naturally all over the world; they can contaminate food crops and pose a serious health threat to humans and livestock.
Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives. Sulfur mustard: formerly used in warfare, now is a cancer drug under the names of Mechlorethamine and Mustargen. Tamoxifen is a drug used to treat breast cancer. Thiotepa is an alkylating cancer drug. Treosulfan is a cancer drug in the group of alkylating agents.
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What are the different types of carcinogens in cancer?
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What is the International Agency for Research on Cancer?
IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans. List of Classifications. Loading…
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization. Its mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strategies for cancer control. The
Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories March 2018 Page iii of viii The Health Advisory (HA) Program, sponsored by the EPA’s Office of Water (OW), publishes concentrations of drinking water contaminants at Drinking Water Specific Risk Level Concentration for cancer (10-4
- The Problem
- What Causes Cancer?
- Risk Factors For Cancers
- Reducing The Cancer Burden
- Preventing Cancer
- Early Detection
- Palliative Care
- Who Response
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020 (1). The most common in 2020 (in terms of new cases of cancer) were: 1. breast (2.26 million cases); 2. lung (2.21 million cases); 3. colon and rectum (1.93 million cases); 4. prostate (1.41 million cases); 5. skin (non-melanoma) (1.20 million cases); and 6. stomach (1.09 million cases). The most common causes of cancer death in 2020 were: 1. lung (1.80 million deaths); 2. colon and rectum (935 000 deaths); 3. liver (830 000 deaths); 4. stomach (769 000 deaths); and 5. breast (685 000 deaths).
Cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells into tumour cells in a multi-stage process that generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factors and three categories of external agents, including: 1. physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; 2. chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant); and 3. biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites. WHO, through its cancer research agency, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), maintains a classification of cancer-causing agents. The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a build-up of risks for specific cancers that increase with age. The overall risk accumulation is combined with the tendency for cellular repair mechanis...
Tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and air pollution are risk factors for cancer (and other noncommunicable diseases). Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer; this is a particular issue in low- and middle-income countries. Approximately 13% of cancers diagnosed in 2018 globally were attributed to carcinogenic infections, including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and Epstein-Barr virus (3). Hepatitis B and C viruses and some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancers such as cervical cancer.
Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and care of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated appropriately.
Cancer risk can be reduced by: 1. not using tobacco; 2. maintaining a healthy body weight; 3. eating a healthy diet, including fruit and vegetables; 4. doing physical activity on a regular basis; 5. avoiding harmful use of alcohol; 6. getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B if you belong to a group for which vaccination is recommended; 7. avoiding ultraviolet radiation (which primarily results from exposure to the sun and artificial tanning devices); 8. ensuring safe and appropriate use of radiation in health care (for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes); 9. minimizing occupational exposure to ionizing radiation; and 10. reducing exposure to outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution, including radon (a radioactive gas produced from the natural decay of uranium, which can accumulate in buildings — homes, schools and workplaces).
Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. There are two components of early detection:
A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for appropriate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen. Treatment usually includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and/or surgery. Determining the goals of treatment is an important first step. The primary goal is generally to cure cancer or to considerably prolong life. Improving the patient's quality of life is also an important goal. This can be achieved by support for the patient’s physical, psychosocial and spiritual well-being and palliative care in terminal stages of cancer. Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer, have high cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices. Some cancer types, such as testicular seminoma and different types of leukaemia and lymphoma in children, also have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided, even when cancerous cells are present in other areas of the...
Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms caused by cancer and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is particularly needed in places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance of cure. Relief from physical, psychosocial, and spiritual problems through palliative care is possible for more than 90% of patients with advanced stages of cancer. Effective public health strategies, comprising community- and home-based care, are essential to provide pain relief and palliative care for patients and their families.
In 2017, the World Health Assembly passed the Resolution Cancer prevention and control in the context of an integrated approach (WHA70.12) that urges governments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the targets specified in the Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013-2020and the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development to reduce premature mortality from cancer. WHO and IARC collaborate with other UN organizations and partners to: 1. increase political commitment for cancer prevention and control; 2. coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis; 3. monitor the cancer burden (as part of the work of the Global Initiative on Cancer Registries); 4. identify “best buys” and other cost-effective, priority strategies for cancer prevention and control; 5. develop standards and tools to guide the planning and implementation of interventions for prevention, early diagnosis, screening, treatment and palliative and...
(1) Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, et al. Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020 (https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed February 2021). (2) GBD results tool. Seattle (WA): Institute for Health Metrics, University of Washington; 2020 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool, accessed February 2021). (3) de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global burden of cancer attributable to infections in 2018: a worldwide incidence analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(2):e180-e190. (4) Assessing national capacity for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: report of the 2019 global survey. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. (5) Wild CP, Weiderpass E, Stewart BW, editors. World Cancer Report: Cancer Research for Cancer Prevention. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020. (6) Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development. Lyon: International Agency for R...