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    • What are the carcinogen classifications?

      • A number of the carcinogen classifications deal with groups of substances: aniline and homologs, chromates, dintrotoluenes, arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, beryllium and beryllium compounds, cadmium compounds, nickel compounds, and crystalline forms of silica. There are also substances of variable or unclear chemical makeup ...
  1. Sulfur mustard: formerly used in warfare, now is a cancer drug under the names of Mechlorethamine and Mustargen. Tamoxifen is a drug used to treat breast cancer. Thiotepa is an alkylating cancer drug. Treosulfan is a cancer drug in the group of alkylating agents.

    • What You Should Know
    • Known Human Carcinogens
    • Probable Carcinogens
    The IARC and NTP act independently. Many known or suspected carcinogens appear on both organization’s lists; however, if a substance or exposure is only on one agency’s list, this it does not neces...
    These lists are alphabetical, but many of the substances and exposures here can go by different names.This can make it hard to find a particular substance on one or both of these lists.
    These lists include only those agents that have been evaluated by the agencies. These agencies tend to focus on substances and exposures most likely to cause cancer, but there are many others that...
    These lists include agents that have been classified as known and probable human carcinogens. The lists do not include substances that have been classified as possible carcinogens, for which the ev...

    International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans

    Learn more about the topics in this list in the IARC monographs at https://monographs.iarc.fr/cards_page/publications-monographs/. 1. Acetaldehyde (from consuming alcoholic beverages) 2. Acheson process, occupational exposure associated with 3. Acid mists, strong inorganic 4. Aflatoxins 5. Alcoholic beverages 6. Aluminum production 7. 4-Aminobiphenyl 8. Areca nut 9. Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it) 10. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds 11. Asbestos (all forms) and mineral su...

    National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carcinogens “Known to be human carcinogens”

    Learn more about the topics in this list in the NTP’s Report on Carcinogensat https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html. 1. Aflatoxins 2. Alcoholic beverage consumption 3. 4-Aminobiphenyl 4. Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin 5. Aristolochic acids 6. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Azathioprine 9. Benzene 10. Benzidine 11. Beryllium and beryllium compounds 12. Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether 13. 1,3-Butadiene 14. 1,...

    International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans

    Learn more about the topics in this list in the IARC monographs at https://monographs.iarc.fr/cards_page/publications-monographs/. 1. Acrylamide 2. Adriamycin (doxorubicin) 3. Androgenic (anabolic) steroids 4. Art glass, glass containers, and press ware (manufacture of) 5. Azacitidine 6. Biomass fuel (primarily wood), emissions from household combustion 7. Bitumens, occupational exposure to oxidized bitumens and their emissions during roofing 8. Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU), also known a...

    National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carcinogens “Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens”

    Learn more about the topics in this list in the NTP’s Report on Carcinogensat https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html. 1. Acetaldehyde 2. 2-Acetylaminofluorene 3. Acrylamide 4. Acrylonitrile 5. Adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) 6. 2-Aminoanthraquinone 7. o-Aminoazotoluene 8. 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone 9. 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 10. 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) 11. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) 12. 2-Amino-3-methylimid...

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    What are the carcinogen classifications?

    What are the most common carcinogenic infections?

    What is not included in carcinogen lists?

    Do carcinogens like meat cause cancer?

    • The Problem
    • What Causes Cancer?
    • Risk Factors For Cancers
    • Reducing The Cancer Burden
    • Preventing Cancer
    • Early Detection
    • Treatment
    • Palliative Care
    • Who Response
    • References

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020 (1). The most common in 2020 (in terms of new cases of cancer) were: 1. breast (2.26 million cases); 2. lung (2.21 million cases); 3. colon and rectum (1.93 million cases); 4. prostate (1.41 million cases); 5. skin (non-melanoma) (1.20 million cases); and ...

    Cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells into tumour cells in a multi-stage process that generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factorsand three categories of external agents, including: 1. physical carcinogens, such as ultraviol...

    Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and air pollution are risk factors for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer; this is a particular issue in low- and middle-income countries. Approximately 13% of cancers diagnosed in 2018 globally were attributed to carcin...

    Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and careof patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and tre...

    Cancer risk can be reduced by: 1. not using tobacco; 2. maintaining a healthy body weight; 3. eating a healthy diet, including fruit and vegetables; 4. doing physical activity on a regular basis; 5. avoiding or reducing consumption of alcohol; 6. getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B if you belong to a group for which vaccination is recomm...

    Cancer mortality is reduced when cases are detected and treated early. There are two components of early detection: early diagnosis and screening.

    A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for appropriate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen. Treatment usually includes surgery, radiotherapy, and/or systemic therapy (chemotherapy, hormonal treatments,targeted biological therapies). Proper selection of a treatment regimen takes into consideration...

    Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms and suffering caused by cancer and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is particularly neededin places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance o...

    In 2017, the World Health Assembly passed the Resolution Cancer prevention and control in the context of an integrated approach (WHA70.12) that urgesgovernments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the targets specified in the Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013-2020and the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development to...

    (1) Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, et al. Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020 (https://gco.iarc.fr/today,accessed February 2021). (2) de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global burden of cancer attributable to infections in 2018: a worldwide in...

  3. IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans. Donate now. News

  4. The cancer burden continues to grow globally, exerting tremendous physical, emotional and financial strain on individuals, families, communities and health systems. Many health systems in low- and middle-income countries are least prepared to manage this burden, and large numbers of cancer patients globally do not have access to timely quality ...

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