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  1. Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it) Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds. Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos. Auramine production. Azathioprine. Benzene. Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine.

  2. IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans. Donate now. News

    • The Problem
    • What Causes Cancer?
    • Risk Factors For Cancers
    • Reducing The Cancer Burden
    • Preventing Cancer
    • Early Detection
    • Treatment
    • Palliative Care
    • Who Response
    • References

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020 (1). The most common in 2020 (in terms of new cases of cancer) were: 1. breast (2.26 million cases); 2. lung (2.21 million cases); 3. colon and rectum (1.93 million cases); 4. prostate (1.41 million cases); 5. skin (non-melanoma) (1.20 million cases); and ...

    Cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells into tumour cells in a multi-stage process that generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factorsand three categories of external agents, including: 1. physical carcinogens, such as ultraviol...

    Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and air pollution are risk factors for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer; this is a particular issue in low- and middle-income countries. Approximately 13% of cancers diagnosed in 2018 globally were attributed to carcin...

    Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and careof patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and tre...

    Cancer risk can be reduced by: 1. not using tobacco; 2. maintaining a healthy body weight; 3. eating a healthy diet, including fruit and vegetables; 4. doing physical activity on a regular basis; 5. avoiding or reducing consumption of alcohol; 6. getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B if you belong to a group for which vaccination is recomm...

    Cancer mortality is reduced when cases are detected and treated early. There are two components of early detection: early diagnosis and screening.

    A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for appropriate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen. Treatment usually includes surgery, radiotherapy, and/or systemic therapy (chemotherapy, hormonal treatments,targeted biological therapies). Proper selection of a treatment regimen takes into consideration...

    Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms and suffering caused by cancer and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is particularly neededin places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance o...

    In 2017, the World Health Assembly passed the Resolution Cancer prevention and control in the context of an integrated approach (WHA70.12) that urgesgovernments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the targets specified in the Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013-2020and the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development to...

    (1) Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, et al. Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020 (,accessed February 2021). (2) de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global burden of cancer attributable to infections in 2018: a worldwide in...

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    Who are carcinogens list?

    • E-G
    • H-K
    • R-S
    • U-Z

    Environmental tobacco smoke Epichlorohydrin Ethyl acrylate Ethylene dibromide Ehtylene dichloride Ethylene oxide Ethyleneimine Ethylene thiourea Formaldehyde Gallium arsenide Gasoline

    Heptachlor Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachloroethane Hexamethyl phosphoric triamide (HMPA) Hydrazine Kepone Return to top of page

    Radon Rosin core solder, pyrolysis products (containing formaldehyde) Silica, crystalline cristobalite Silica, crystalline quartz Silica, crystalline tripoli Silica, crystalline tridymite silica, fused Soapstone, total dust silicates Return to top of page

    Uranium, insoluble compounds Uranium, soluble compounds Vinyl bromide; class, vinyl halides Vinyl chloride Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethylene); class, vinyl halides) Welding fumes, total particulates Wood dust Zinc chromate; class, chromium hexavalent Return to top of page

  4. The publications programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is an integral part of its mission to promote international collaboration in cancer research for cancer prevention. Several renowned and authoritative series, handbooks, textbooks, and manuals reflect the wide range of the Agency’s activities.