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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Meta-ethicsMeta-ethics - Wikipedia

    In metaphilosophy and ethics, meta-ethics is the study of the nature, scope, and meaning of moral judgment.It is one of the three branches of ethics generally studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics (questions of how one ought to be and act) and applied ethics (practical questions of right behavior in given, usually contentious, situations).

  2. Moral relativism encompasses views and arguments that people in various cultures have held over several thousand years. For example, the ancient Jaina Anekantavada principle of Mahavira (c. 599–527 BC) states that truth and reality are perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth; and the Greek philosopher Protagoras (c. 481–420 ...

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peter_SingerPeter Singer - Wikipedia

    Meta-ethical views. In the past, Singer has not held that objective moral values exist, on the basis that reason could favour both egoism and equal consideration of interests. Singer himself adopted utilitarianism on the basis that people's preferences can be universalised, leading to a situation where one takes the "point of view of the ...

  4. Ethical subjectivism and moral relativism Ethical subjectivism is a completely distinct concept from moral relativism . [13] Moral relativism claims that statements are true or false based on who is saying them: they include indexicals in the same way that the truth of the statement "I am in Senegal" is dependent on who is making that statement ...

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AltruismAltruism - Wikipedia

    The notion of altruism. The concept has a long history in philosophical and ethical thought. The term was originally coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, and has become a major topic for psychologists (especially evolutionary psychology researchers), evolutionary biologists, and ethologists.

  6. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AestheticsAesthetics - Wikipedia

    Gary Tedman has put forward a theory of a subjectless aesthetics derived from Karl Marx's concept of alienation, and Louis Althusser's antihumanism, using elements of Freud's group psychology, defining a concept of the 'aesthetic level of practice'. Gregory Loewen has suggested that the subject is key in the interaction with the aesthetic ...

  7. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › EssenceEssence - Wikipedia

    Existentialism was coined by Jean-Paul Sartre's endorsement of Martin Heidegger's statement that for human beings "existence precedes essence."In as much as "essence" is a cornerstone of all metaphysical philosophy and of Rationalism, Sartre's statement was a repudiation of the philosophical system that had come before him (and, in particular, that of Husserl, Hegel, and Heidegger).

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