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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Meta-ethicsMeta-ethics - Wikipedia

    A meta-ethical theory, unlike a normative ethical theory, does not attempt to evaluate specific choices as being better, worse, good, bad, or evil; although it may have profound implications as to the validity and meaning of normative ethical claims.

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    • Debate on Moral Relativism
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    Commentators may describe moral relativism as a temporal idea of the "new" that conflicts with absolute moral standards of tradition. Moral relativism, however, encompasses views and arguments that people in some cultures have held for a very long time (see for example the ancient Taoist writings of Chuang Tzufrom the 4th century BCE). History reco...

    Moral relativism generally stands in marked contrast to moral absolutism, moral realism, and moral naturalism, which all maintain the existence of moral facts: facts that entities can both know and judge, whether through some process of verification or through intuition. Examples include the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778), who sa...

    Those who support positions of moral absolutism or universalism often express trenchant criticism of moral relativism; some sometimes equate it with outright "immorality" or amorality. Some believe that various historical and cultural events and practices (including the Holocaust, Stalinism, Apartheid in South Africa, genocide, unjust wars, genital...

    Kurt Baier, "Difficulties in the Emotive-Imperative Theory" in Paul W Taylor (editor): The Moral Judgement: Readings in Contemporary Meta-EthicsEnglewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963
    Panayot Butchvarov, "Skepticism in Ethics" (Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1989).
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  3. Meta-ethical relativism “Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, of things which are not, that they are not.” Protagoras The Basics • Relativism is the view that there are no fixed moral principles, a perspective which may be contrasted with moral absolutism.

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    Examples of meta-ethical questions include: 1. What does it mean to say something is "good"? 2. How, if at all, do we know what is rightand wrong? 3. How do moral attitudesmotivate action? 4. Are there objective or absolutevalues? 5. What is the source of our values?

    A meta-ethical theory, unlike a normative ethical theory, does not contain any ethical evaluations. An answer to any of the five example questions above would not itself be an ethical statement. The major meta-ethical views are commonly divided into realist and anti-realistviews: 1. Moral realism holds that there are objective values. Realists beli...

    Some think that in the 20th and 21st centuries meta-ethics has come to replace normative ethics as the more prevalent pursuit among academic philosophers. This is supposed to have occurred simultaneously with an overall decline in belief in moral absolutes in most popular cultures as well as a greater interest in process and categorization as oppos...

  4. Moral relativism or ethical relativism (often reformulated as relativist ethics or relativist morality) is a term used to describe several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different peoples and their own particular cultures. An advocate of such ideas is often labeled simply as a relativist for short.

  5. ethical relativism, the doctrine that there are no absolute truths in ethics and that what is morally right or wrong varies from person to person or from society to society. Arguments for ethical relativism