- What Is Tularemia?
- Where Is Tularemia Prevalent?
Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is caused by oval-shaped bacteria (coccobacilli) called Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks, deer flies, contact with infected animals or infected carcasses, inhalation of air-borne bacteria, and ingestion of infected food or water. In the summer, most cases come from infected tick bites. In the winter, cases are reported by hunters who trap and skin infected animals. Person-to-person transmission...
Cases of tularemia have been reported across the United States with a concentration of reports in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. From 1990 to 2000, there were 1,368 cases reported in the United States. On average, 124 cases per year were reported during this period of time. A cluster of cases were reported at Martha’s Vineyard (Massachusetts) in 2000. A study published by the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases showed that these cases were associated with landscaping work. Landscape worke...
Symptoms often appear abruptly three to five days after infection, but can take as long as two weeks to appear. A fever of 38°C to 40°C (100.4°F to 104°F) is the most common symptom. Other symptoms include joint pain, swelling of lymph nodes, headache, chills, dry cough, sore throat, ulcers at the site of infection, sore eyes, weakness, and diarrhea.There are several forms of tularemia, each specific to a particular route of entry by F. tularensis into the body. Ulceroglandular tularemia is t...
According to the CDC, a clinical diagnosis of F. tularensis can be confirmed by examining stained secretions, exudates, and biopsy specimens. The definitive confirmation of F. tularensis infection is growth of the bacteria in culture.
The CDC recommends intramuscular and intravenous antibiotic therapy for treatment of tularemia. A more detailed description of dosages recommended by the CDC can be found here. In summary, streptomycin is the recommended drug, with gentamicin serving as an alternative. The CDC recommends that these drugs be administered for 10 days. Both can be used in children and pregnant women.
- What Is Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever?
- Where Is Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Prevalent?
- Prevention & Control
Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is caused by bacterial spirochete species including Borelliahermsii, Borelliaparkerii, or Borelliaturicatae, with Borelliahermsii being the most common causative agent. The bacteria are transmitted by the bite of soft tick Ornithodoros species. These ticks feed primarily at night. The bite of the tick is usually painless and they feed for only 15 to 30 minutes before dropping off. This makes it difficult to detect the ticks on one’s body. The Ornithodoros sof...
TBRF can occur in most of the western portion of the US (west of the Mississippi River) with most cases occurring west of the Rocky Mountains. Travelers to these endemic states commonly get the disease as well. A high percentage of cases occur among people vacationing in rodent-infested cabins in wooded and mountainous areas.
Tick-borne relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of fever accompanied by other non-specific symptoms including headaches, muscle pain, joint pain, chills, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Bacterial presence tends to be greater among pregnant women, and may sometimes result in more severe infection. Symptoms tend to develop within 7 days after the tick bite. The symptoms last an average of 3 days (range of 3-7 days) and are then followed by an asymptomatic period (no symptoms pre...
A definitive diagnosis of TBRF is made by detecting Borrelia spirochetes in the patient’s smears of blood, bone marrow or cerebrospinal fluid. The best time to detect spirochetes in patient blood samples is when the patient is febrile (feverish).
Symptoms of TBRF often resolve on their own, but treatment with antibiotics can help them resolve much faster. Antibiotics used to treat TBRF include erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and penicillin. The current recommended duration of antibiotic therapy is 7 days. Erythromycin or penicillin antibiotics are recommended for use by young children or pregnant women.
The best way to protect oneself from TBRF is to avoid exposure to rodent and tick-infested dwellings. Homes and vacation cabins should be rodent-proofed and any rodent nesting materials should be removed. Tick exposure can be avoided by fumigating homes with compounds containing permethrins or pyrethrins and using insecticides containing DEET on skin and clothing.
2 days ago · Adults prefer humans and dogs as hosts. In North Carolina and throughout the southeastern United States, the American dog tick is the vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. However, this species does not transmit Lyme disease. The American dog tick is found throughout North Carolina, but it is most common in the Piedmont area. The Brown Dog Tick
Aug 05, 2020 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the state, occurring largely in the central and eastern portions of the state. But there are other types of ticks, as well, and the state keeps discovering new species and new diseases.
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3 days ago · In most cases, ear infection in adults resolve spontaneously, without treatment in the setting of competent immune system. But treatments that are suggested in some cases include: 1. Painkillers. To ease the earache, painkillers (like paracetamol or ibuprofen) are given. They also lower the temperature (fever associated with the ongoing infection).
Aug 07, 2020 · A disease has been reported in China known as Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) which is caused by the tick-borne virus. It has infected at least 60 people and killed 7.
Aug 08, 2020 · "But in the laboratory, they have demonstrated that this tick can acquire and transmit Rickettsia," Pesapane said, and that can lead to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, a bacterial disease that can ...
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