- Risk Factors
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a bacterial infection transmitted by a tick. Without prompt treatment, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause serious damage to internal organs, such as your kidneys and heart.Although it was first identified in the Rocky Mountains, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is most commonly found in the southeastern part of the United States. It also occurs in parts of Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America.Early signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
Although many people become ill within the first week after infection, signs and symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. Initial signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever often are nonspecific and can mimic those of other illnesses: 1. High fever 2. Chills 3. Severe headache 4. Muscle aches 5. Nausea and vomiting 6. Confusion or other neurological changes
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by infection with the organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Ticks carrying R. rickettsii are the most common source of infection.If an infected tick attaches itself to your skin and feeds on your blood for six to 10 hours, you may pick up the infection. But you may never see the tick on you.Rocky Mountain spotted fever primarily occurs when ticks are most active and during warm weather when people tend to spend more time outdoors. Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
Factors that may increase your risk of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever include: 1. Living in an area where the disease is common 2. The time of year — infections are more common in the spring and early summer 3. How much time you spend in grassy or wooded areas 4. Whether you have a dog or spend time with dogsIf an infected tick attaches to your skin, you can contract Rocky Mountain spotted fever when you remove it, as fluid from the tick can enter your body through an opening such a...
Rocky Mountain spotted fever damages the lining of your smallest blood vessels, causing the vessels to leak or form clots. This may cause: 1. Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). In addition to severe headaches, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause inflammation of the brain, which can cause confusion, seizures and delirium. 2. Inflammation of the heart or lungs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause inflammation in areas of the heart and lungs. This can lead to heart failure or lung f...
You can decrease your chances of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever by taking some simple precautions: 1. Wear long pants and sleeves. When walking in wooded or grassy areas, wear shoes, long pants tucked into socks and long-sleeved shirts. Try to stick to trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. 2. Use insect repellents. Products containing DEET (Off! Deep Woods, Repel) often repel ticks. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label. Clothing that has permethrin i...
Sep 17, 2019 · Adults typically have a fever if their body temperature increases to 100.4°F (38°C). This is called a low grade fever. A high grade fever happens when your body temperature is 103°F (39.4°C ...
Oct 26, 2018 · Early treatment with the antibiotic doxycycline can prevent death and severe illness. Doxycycline is the recommended antibiotic treatment for RMSF in adults and children of all ages. Page last reviewed: October 26, 2018
The characteristic red, spotted rash of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually not seen until the sixth day or later after onset of symptoms, but this type of rash occurs in only 35 to 60% of patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The rash involves the palms or soles in as many as 80% of people.
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Mar 31, 2020 · The following are the classifications of body temperature ranges, according to an article in the Journal of Infection and Public Health: . Mild or low-grade fever: 100.4–102.2°F (38–39°C ...
- Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA
Valley fever’s symptoms start out much like those of the flu. But this illness comes from a fungus that lives in the soil, and a few cases are serious.
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Apr 28, 2017 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause long-term health problems and death, especially in severe cases or if a patient does not commence doxycycline treatment soon after the first signs of illness.
Aug 28, 2018 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection spread by a bite from an infected tick. It causes vomiting, a sudden high fever around 102 or 103°F, headache, abdominal pain, rash ...
When treated with doxycycline, fever generally subsides within 24–48 hours.Severely ill patients may require longer periods of treatment before fever will resolve, especially if they have experienced damage to organ systems.Resistance to doxycycline or relapses in symptoms after the completion of the recommended course has not been documented.Doxycycline is the drug of choice recommended by both CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases to treat suspected rickettsial disease in children.Use of antibiotics other than doxycycline increases the risk of severe illness and death.Doxycycline should be used whenever possible.In cases of severe doxycycline allergy, rapid desensitization procedures in an inpatient setting may be considered. Physicians should carefully weigh the benefits of doxycycline use and the risks o...Chloramphenicol is the only alternative drug used to treat RMSF; however, epidemiologic studies suggest that RMSF patients treated with chloramphenicol are at higher risk for death than people who...The use of sulfa-containing drugs may worsen clinical course and increase the likelihood of death from RMSF.Post-tick bite antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended to prevent RMSF.People who were bitten by a tick should be advised to watch for signs and symptoms and see their healthcare provider if fever, rash, or other symptoms develop within two weeks of tick bite.Treatment for asymptomatic individuals is not currently recommended.
- Treatment Duration
- Treating Children and Pregnant Women
- Other Treatments
- Antibiotics as Prophylaxis
- Risk Factors
Valley fever is a fungal infection caused by coccidioides (kok-sid-e-OY-deze) organisms. It can cause fever, chest pain and coughing, among other signs and symptoms.Two species of coccidioides fungi cause valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by anything that disrupts the soil, such as farming, construction and wind.The fungi can then be breathed into the lungs and cause valley fever, also known as acute coccid...
Valley fever is the initial form of coccidioidomycosis infection. This initial, acute illness can develop into a more serious disease, including chronic and disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
The fungi that cause valley fever — Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii — thrive in the arid desert soils of southern Arizona, Nevada, northern Mexico and California's San Joaquin Valley. They're also endemic to New Mexico, Texas, and parts of Central and South America — areas with mild winters and arid summers.Like many other fungi, coccidioides species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne spores when the soil...
1. Environmental exposure. Anyone who inhales the spores that cause valley fever is at risk of infection. People who have jobs that expose them to dust are most at risk — construction, road and agricultural workers, ranchers, archeologists, and military personnel on field exercises. 2. Race. For reasons that aren't well-understood, people of Filipino and African heritage are more susceptible to developing serious infection with coccidioidomycosis. 3. Pregnancy. Pregnant women are vulnerable...
Some people, especially pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems — such as those living with HIV/AIDS — and those of Filipino or African heritage are at risk of developing a more severe form of coccidioidomycosis.Complications of coccidioidomycosis may include: 1. Severe pneumonia. Most people recover from coccidioidomycosis-related pneumonia without complications. Others, mainly people of Filipino and African heritage, and those with weakened immune systems, may become seriously i...
If you live in or visit areas where valley fever is common, take commonsense precautions, especially during the summer months when the chance of infection is highest. Consider wearing a mask, staying inside during dust storms, wetting the soil before digging, and keeping doors and windows tightly closed.