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  1. North American Vertical Datum of 1988 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › North_American_Vertical

    Apr 14, 2021 · Detailed information about NAVD 88 is available here. The definition of NAVD 88 uses the Helmert orthometric height, which calculates the location of the geoid (which approximates MSL) from modeled local gravity. [citation needed] The NAVD 88 model is based on then-available measurements, and remains fixed despite later improved geoid models.

  2. North American Datum - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › North_American_Datum

    Apr 14, 2021 · Vertical measurements, based on distances above or below Mean High Water (MHW), are calculated using the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). [1] NAD 83, along with NAVD 88, is set to be replaced with a new GPS - and gravimetric geoid model-based geometric reference frame and geopotential datum in 2022 .

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    Which is the official definition of NAVD 88?

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  4. Geodetic datum - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Geodetic_datum

    Apr 14, 2021 · A vertical datum is a reference surface for vertical positions, such as the elevations of Earth features including terrain, bathymetry, water level, and man-made structures. An approximate definition of sea level is the datum WGS 84 , an ellipsoid , whereas a more accurate definition is Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), using at least ...

  5. Altitudinal zonation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Altitudinal_zonation

    Apr 14, 2021 · Montane level: Extends from the mid-elevation forests to the tree line. The exact level of the tree line varies with local climate, but typically the tree line is found where mean monthly soil temperatures never exceed 10.0 degrees C and the mean annual soil temperatures are around 6.7 degrees C.

  6. Geographical distance - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Geographical_distance

    6 days ago · Geographical distance is the distance measured along the surface of the earth.The formulae in this article calculate distances between points which are defined by geographical coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude.

  7. Natural Stream Processes | NC State Extension Publications

    content.ces.ncsu.edu › natural-stream-processes

    5 days ago · Streams and rivers are integral parts of the landscape that carry water and sediment from high elevations to downstream lakes, estuaries, and oceans. The land area draining to a stream or river is defined as its watershed. When rain falls in a watershed, it either runs off the land surface, infiltrates into the soil, or evaporates . As surface ...

  8. Elevation definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary

    www.collinsdictionary.com › english › elevation

    6 days ago · Elevation definition: In architecture , an elevation is the front , back , or side of a building, or a drawing... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples

  9. plate tectonics | Definition, Theory, Facts, & Evidence ...

    www.britannica.com › science › plate-tectonics

    Apr 09, 2021 · Plate tectonics, theory dealing with the dynamics of Earth’s outer shell that revolutionized Earth sciences by providing a uniform context for understanding mountain-building processes, volcanoes, and earthquakes as well as the evolution of Earth’s surface and reconstructing its past continents and oceans.

  10. Apr 07, 2021 · NGA delivers world-class geospatial intelligence that provides a decisive advantage to policymakers, warfighters, intelligence professionals and first responders.

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