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- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. A headache, and nausea or vomiting may also occur.
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Definition. Streptococcal sore throat, or strep throat as it is more commonly called, is an infection of the mucous membranes lining the pharynx. Sometimes the tonsils are also infected ( tonsillitis ). The disease is caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria.
Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is caused by a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). It is the most common bacterial cause of cases of pharyngitis (15–30%). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, and large lymph nodes. It is a contagious infection, spread by close contact with an infected individual.
- Pathogenesis and classification
- Molecular taxonomy and phylogenetics
- Natural genetic transformation
Streptococcus Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Streptococcaceae Genus: Streptococcus Rosenbach, 1884 Species Streptococcus acidominimus Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus alactolyticus Streptococcus anginosus Streptococcus australis Streptococcus caballi Streptococcus cameli Streptococcus canis Streptococcus caprae Streptococcus castoreus Streptococcus criceti Streptococcus constellatus Streptococcus cristatus Strepto
When alpha-hemolysis is present, the agar under the colony will appear dark and greenish due to the conversion of hemoglobin to green biliverdin. Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci display alpha-hemolysis. Alpha-hemolysis is also termed incomplete hemolysis
Beta hemolysis, sometimes called complete hemolysis, is a complete lysis of red cells in the media around and under the colonies: the area appears lightened and transparent. Streptolysin, an exotoxin, is the enzyme produced by the bacteria which causes the complete lysis of red b
Streptococci have been divided into six groups on the basis of their 16S rDNA sequences: S. anginosus, S. gallolyticus, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. pyogenes and S. salivarius. The 16S groups have been confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The important pathogens S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes belong to the S. mitis and S. pyogenes groups, respectively, while the causative agent of dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, is basal to the Streptococcus group.
Bacteriophages have been described for many species of Streptococcus. 18 prophages have been described in S. pneumoniae that range in size from 38 to 41 kb in size, encoding from 42 to 66 genes each. Some of the first Streptococcus phages discovered were Dp-1 and ω1. In 1981 the Cp family was discovered with Cp-1 as its first member. Dp-1 and Cp-1 infect both S. pneumoniae and S. mitis. However, the host ranges of most Streptococcus phages have not been investigated systematically.
Natural genetic transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. Transformation is a complex process dependent on expression of numerous genes. To be capable of transformation a bacterium must enter a special physiologic state referred to as competence. S. pneumoniae, S. mitis and S. oralis can become competent, and as a result actively acquire homologous DNA for transformation by a predatory fratricidal mechanism This fratricidal mechanis
Group B streptococcal infection, also known as Group B streptococcal disease or just Group B strep, is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS).
- Group B streptococcal disease
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat. Sore throat is usually caused by a viral infection or a group A streptococcus bacterial infection. Other causes include pharyngitis, tonsillitis, or dehydration, which leads to the throat drying up. It can also result from trauma. The majority of sore throats are caused by a virus, for which antibiotics are not helpful. A strong association between antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance has been shown. For sore thr
A sore throat is the pain felt anywhere in the throat.
The most common cause is acute viral pharyngitis, a viral infection of the throat. Other causes include other bacterial infections, trauma, and tumors. Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause stomach acid to back up into the throat and also cause the throat to become sore. In children, streptococcal pharyngitis is the cause of 35–37% of sore throats. The symptoms of a viral infection and a bacterial infection may be very similar. Some clinical guidelines suggest that the cause of a sore ...
Pain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol help in the management of pain. The use of corticosteroids seems to increase the likelihood of resolution and reduce the level of pain. Antibiotics shorten the duration of pain symptoms by an average of about one day. It is not known whether antibiotics are effective for preventing recurrent sore throat. There is an old wives tale that having a hot drink can help with common cold and influenza symptoms, including sore
In the United States, there are about 2.4 million emergency department visits with throat-related complaints per year.
It is caused by bacteria which if untreated can lead to many other problems in the body. Strep throat is most common in childhood but can affect people of all ages. It may present with throat pain, difficulty swallowing, painful and swollen tonsils, fever, headache, skin rash and flu.
The rapid strep test is a rapid antigen detection test that is widely used in clinics to assist in the diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis caused by group A streptococci, sometimes termed strep throat. There are currently several types of rapid strep test in use, each employing a distinct technology. However, they all work by detecting the presence of GAS in the throat of a person by responding to GAS-specific antigens on a throat swab. Rapid strep test Rapid strep test kit MedlinePlus003745 LOIN
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