Vietnamese language history
- Vietnamese Language History. About 3,000 years ago, communities of Mon-Khmer and Tay people merged in the northern Red River and Ma River Deltas. These two groups developed a shared language, known as Viet-Muong, which was composed of two main dialects.
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Vietnamese (Vietnamese: Tiếng Việt or Tiếng Kinh) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.It is by far the most spoken Austroasiatic language with over 70 million native speakers, at least seven times more than Khmer, the next most spoken Austroasiatic language.
- The Chinese
- Loan Word
- European Influence
Chu Nom – Vietnamese The Chinese annexed Giao Chi (the Tonkin Delta) in 111 A.D. In a bid to assimilate the lowland Viets, they introduced a Chinese-style administrative system headed by Chinese governors and opened schools to teach Chinese characters. During the 1,000 years of Chinese rule, while Han (classical Chinese) was the official written language, the spoken language continued to develop. The City dialect became the common Viet language, while the Highlanders dialect evolved into the present Muong language. By the l0th century, when the Viets recovered their independence and established the nation of Dai Viet, the linguistic split between Viet and Muong was complete. Through the following ten centuries of national independence, the Vietnamese imperial court and ruling classes continued to emulate Chinese cultural practices. Civil service exams and academic literature were written in Chinese characters. The spoken language, however, was Vietnamese, and there arose a paradox:...
Due to frequent contacts between Vietnam and China, the Vietnamese language absorbed many Han words. Today, many of these “loan-words” have been Vietnamized to such an extent that few people are aware of their Chinese origins. Examples include Tiền (money), Hàng (goods/merchandise), chợ (market), and Mùa (season). The second group of literary terms, known as “Sino-Vietnamese” words, was assimilated into Vietnamese during the Tang era (5th to 7th century). These terms are incompletely Vietnamized. When speaking, one may not mix these two types of words. For example, since a one-syllable “pure” Vietnamese word for mountain (núi) already exists, one should not use the Chinese counterpart (sơn-which also means mountain) to build a sentence like “Tôi lên sơn” (I climb the mountain). The word nói must be used instead. But, one may use the Chinese synonym sơn to replace nói in two-syllable words, such as in the sentence: “Có cô sơn nữ ở vùng sơn cước hát bài sơn ca trong một sơn trại”. (Th...
The Roman-based script used in Vietnam today dates back to the 17th century. French, Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries, aided by Vietnamese preachers, developed a new writing system as a means of spreading the gospel to a broader audience. The man credited with developing the modern Roman based Chữ quốc ngữ (script of the national language) is Alexandre De Rhodes, a French Jesuit missionary who came to Vietnam in 1627. Within six months of his arrival, De Rhodes was reportedly preaching in fluent Vietnamese. When developing quốc ngữ, De Rhodes and his fellow missionaries faced two challenges. First, since Vietnamese has six tones, they had to add diacritical marks. Second, they had to transcribe each monosyllabic word separately, which differed from the ideographic and thus polysyllabic transcription of nôm script. At first, Confucian scholars resisted the adoption of quốc ngữ. The spread of this easy to learn script undermined their power, which was based on traditional...
Jun 04, 2014 · The history of Vietnamese language is being studied by linguistic community. In recent study, Vietnamese language originated from Viet – Muong which contains Vietnamese and Muong languages. Viet – Muong is the subdivisions of Vietic languages group, sub-branch of Austroasiatic language family.
History of the Vietnamese Language Vietnamese, formerly known as Annamese is the official language of Vietnam. The Vietnamese language is spoken by roughly 59 million people worldwide. Additionally, it is also spoken by a number of people overseas.
Vietnamese Language – A Brief History Of 4000 Years Vietnamese is a tonal language spoken mainly by millions of people in Vietnam and worldwide notably in the United States, China, France, Canada, particularly neighborhood countries Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. In the Czech Republic, it was recognized as one of the minority languages.
See Article History Vietnamese language, official language of Vietnam, spoken in the early 21st century by more than 70 million people. It belongs to the Viet-Muong subbranch of the Vietic branch of the Mon-Khmer family, which is itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock.
In fact, as the vernacular language of Vietnam gradually grew in prestige toward the beginning of the second millennium, the Vietnamese language was written using Chinese characters (see Chu Nom) adapted to write Vietnamese, in a similar pattern as used in Japan (see kanji), Korea and other countries in the Chinese cultural sphere.
- Where Vietnamese Language Is Spoken
- Vietnamese Language Dialects
- Written Vietnamese Language
- Vietnamese Language Tones and Speech Patterns
Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. In addition to Vietnamese speakers living in Vietnam, a significant number of people speak Vietnamese overseas, notably in the United States. It is also spoken in France, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Australia, Senegal, and Cote d'Ivoire. Vietnamese is also widely used as a second language by many of the mountain-dwelling ethnic minorities in Vietnam, and in neighboring countries like Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Vietnamese is one of approximately 150 languages belonging to the Austro Asiatic family of languages. Within the Austro-Asiatic family, three major branches are generally recognized. Viet-Muong (or Annam-Muong) includes Vietnamese and its sister language Muong (spoken in the Midlands). While Vietnamese and its sister language Muong form a group on their own, some scholars favor the inclusion of Vietnamese within the Mon-Khmer group.
Vietnamese is spoken in three dialects, corresponding to the three main regions of Vietnam: Northern Vietnamese (Hanoi), Central Vietnamese (Hue ), and Southern Vietnamese (Ho Chi Minh City). The Northern dialect forms the basis of the standard language and is the prestige dialect. The dialects differ mainly in terms of pronunciation and to a limited extent in terms of the vocabulary. These dialect differences do not impede intelligibility among speakers of the different dialects, however.
While adopting many elements of the Chinese language, the Vietnamese people changed many Chinese words, gradually creating Han-Viet (Chinese-Vietnamese) which incorporated purely Vietnamese words. "Vietnamization" not only applied to the Chinese language, but also to French and other language groups, creating a diverse vocabulary for the Vietnamese language, according to the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism. Vietnamese was first written using modified Chinese characters when Vietnam was a province of China, from the second century BC until the tenth century. During the medieval period, from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Buddhist scholars and priests developed a writing system based on Chinese characters. This script, called chu nom, used combinations or digraphs of Chinese characters; one component gave the meaning and the other component signaled the pronunciation. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Roman script modified by diacritics to mark tones and cer...
Vietnamese is a tone language; that is, the meaning of words and sentences is affected by the pitch with which they are spoken. The tones in Vietnamese are mid-level, low falling, high rising, low, rising after an initial dip, high broken and low broken. "Broken" tones are spoken in a glottalized manner. There is no inflection in Vietnamese so nouns and verbs are not marked for things such as subject agreement and tense or number, grammatical gender, and case. Nouns are marked by special classifiers. There are classifiers that mark inanimate objects, animate objects, vehicles, books, people, and important people, for example. Reduplication and compounding are common phenomena. In a reduplicated form, the entire word may be repeated or just a portion of it. Reduplication may indicate plural, extension, or repetition of a state or intensity. Names of birds, insects, plants, and fruits are often reduplicated, too. Sentences in Vietnamese have subject-verb-object word order. Because the...