Where is the Alhambra Palace in Spain located?
- The Alhambra (/ælˈhæmbrə/ (listen), Spanish: [aˈlambɾa]; Arabic: الْحَمْرَاء, romanized: Al-Ḥamrāʾ, pronounced [ʔælħæmˈɾɑːʔ], lit. "The Red One") is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.
The Alhambra is an ancient palace, fortress and citadel located in Granada, Spain. The eighth-century-old site was named for the reddish walls and towers that surrounded the citadel: al-qal’a al-hamra in Arabic means red fort or castle.
Apr 17, 2021 · What is the name of the Moorish palace in Granada Spain? A lhambra Alhambra, palace and fortress of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, Spain. The name Alhambra, signifying in Arabic “the red,” is probably derived from the reddish colour of the tapia (rammed earth) of which the outer walls were built.
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- Main Structures
- Water Supply System
- Historic Furnishings and Art Objects
- See Also
- Further Reading
Alhambra derives from the Arabic الْحَمْرَاء al-Ḥamrāʼ (f.), meaning "the red one", the complete form of which was الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ al-Qalʻat al-Ḥamrāʼ "the red fortress (qalat)". The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite article. The reference to the colour "red" in the name is due to the reddish colour of its walls, which were constructed of rammed earth. The reddish colour comes from the iron oxide in the local clayused for this type of construction.
Origins and early history
The evidence for a Roman presence is unclear but archeologists have found remains of ancient foundations on the Sabika hill. A fortress or citadel, probably dating from the Visigothic period, existed on the hill in the 9th century. The first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles between the Arabs and the Muladies during the rule of the ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad (r. 888–912). According to surviving documents from the era, the red castle was quite small, and its walls were not ca...
After 1228 Almohad rule collapsed and local rulers and factions emerged across the territory of Al-Andalus. With the Reconquista in full swing, the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon – under kings Ferdinand III and James I, respectively – made major conquests across al-Andalus. Castile captured Cordoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248. Meanwhile, Ibn al-Ahmar (Muhammad I) established what became the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids, who ruled the...
Reconquista and Christian Spanish period
The last Nasrid sultan, Muhammad XII of Granada, surrendered the Emirate of Granada in 1492 without the Alhambra itself being attacked when the forces of the Reyes Católicos, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, took the surrounding territory with a force of overwhelming numbers. Muhammad XII moved the remains of his ancestors from the complex, as was verified by Leopoldo Torres Balbás in 1925, when he found seventy empty tombs. The remains are now likely to be located...
According to the site's current architect, Pedro Salmeron Escobar, the Alhambra evolved organically over a period of several centuries from the ancient hilltop fortress defined by a narrow promontory carved by the river Darro and overlooking the Vega or Plain of Granada as it descends from the Sierra Nevada. The red earth from which the fortress is constructed is a granular aggregate held together by a medium of red clay which gives the resulting layered brick- and stone- reinforced construction (tapial calicastrado) its characteristic hue and is at the root of the name of 'the Red Hill'. This crude earthiness is counterpointed by the startling fine alabaster white stuccowork of the famous interiors. Alhambra is about 740 metres (2,430 ft) in length by 205 metres (670 ft) at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to east-southeast and covers an area of about 142,000 square metres (1,530,000 sq ft) or 35 acres. The Alhambra's most westerly feature is the Alcazaba (citadel...
Access from the city to the Alhambra Park is afforded by the Puerta de las Granadas (Gate of Pomegranates), a triumphal arch dating from the 15th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V, a fountain erected in 1554, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This is the Puerta de la Justicia (Gate of Justice), a massive horseshoe archway surmounted by a square tower and used by the Moors as an informal court of justice. The hand of Fatima, with fingers outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye, is carved above this gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazaba from the Moorish palace. To the left of the passage rises the Torre del Vino (Wine Tower), built in 1345 and used in the 16th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of Charles V, a smaller Renaissancebuilding, to co...
Water was provided to both the Alhambra and the Generalife by the Acequia Real (also known as the Acequia del Rey or Acequia del Sultan), which still exists in large part today. It draws water from the Darro River at an uphill location in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, about 6.1 kilometers east of the Alhambra. A smaller branch known as the Acequia del Tercio also splits off from it several kilometers upstream and proceeded along higher ground before arriving at the top point of the Generalife's palace and gardens. The main branch, proceeding along lower ground, also arrives at the Generalife palace and supplies water to its iconic Patio de la Acequia. Both canals generally ran along the surface but some parts ran through tunnels cut directly into the bedrock. The Silla del Moro('Seat of the Moor'), a ruined structure today on the hilltop overlooking the Generalife, was once a fort and monitoring post that protected the water supply infrastructure of this area. After arriving a...
The original furniture of the palace is represented by one of the famous Alhambra vases, very large Hispano-Moresque warevases made in the Sultanate to stand in niches around the palace. These famous examples of Hispano-Moresque ware date from the 14th and 15th centuries. The one remaining in the palace, from about 1400, is 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high; the background is white and the decoration is blue, white and gold.
The Alhambra features various styles of the Arabic epigraphy that developed under the Nasrid dynasty, and particularly under Yusuf I and Muhammad V. José Miguel Puerta Vílchez compares the walls of the Alhambra to the pages of a manuscript, drawing similarities between the zilīj-covered dadosand the geometric manuscript illuminations, and the epigraphical forms in the palace to calligraphic motifs in contemporary Arabic manuscripts. The texts of the Alhambra include "devout, regal, votive, and Quranic phrases and sentences," formed into arabesques, carved into wood and marble, and glazed onto tiles. Poets of the Narsid court, including Ibn al-Khatīb and Ibn Zamrak, composed poems for the palace. Most of the poetry is inscribed in Nasrid cursive script, while foliate and floral Kufic inscriptions—often formed into arches, columns, enjambments, and "architectural calligrams"—are generally used as decorative elements. Kufic calligrams, particularly of the words "blessing" (بركة baraka)...
Parts of the following works are set in the Alhambra: 1. Washington Irving's Tales of the Alhambra. This is a collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories. Irving lived in the palace while writing the book and was instrumental in introducing the site to Western audiences. 2. Radwa Ashour's Granada Trilogy[ar] 3. Salman Rushdie's The Moor's Last Sigh 4. Amin Maalouf's Leo Africanus, depicting the reconquest of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs. 5. Philippa Gregory's The Constant Princess,...
The plot of the Ballet-héroïque entitled Zaïde, reine de Grenade, by the French Baroque composer Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer (c. 1705–1755), takes place at the Alhambra. Alhambra has directly inspired musical compositions including Francisco Tárrega's famous tremolo study for guitar Recuerdos de la Alhambra, as well as Claude Debussy's piece for two pianos composed in 1901, Lindaraja, and the prelude, La Puerta del Vino, from the second book of preludes composed from 1912 to 1913. Isaac Alb...
The Alhambra tiles are remarkable in that they contain nearly all, if not all, of the seventeen mathematically possible wallpaper groups. This is a unique accomplishment in world architecture. M. C. Escher's visit in 1922 and study of the Moorish use of symmetries in the Alhambra tiles inspired his subsequent work on tessellation, which he called "regular divisions of the plane".Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1997). The Alhambra. Vol 1: From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354). Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-466-6.Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1998). The Alhambra. Vol 2: (1354–1391). Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-467-3.Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1999). The Alhambra. Vol 3: From 1391 to the Present Day. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-589-2.Grabar, Oleg. The Alhambra. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Sep 18, 2019 · Now, to help you choose between Granada or Seville for this particular trip, let’s do a rundown of the pros and cons of visiting this historic destination. In Granada’s favor, the Alhambra, Generalife, and the Albaicín are all listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The Royal Alcázars of Seville (Spanish: Reales Alcázares de Sevilla), historically known as al-Qasr al-Muriq (Arabic: القصر المُورِق , The Verdant Palace) and commonly known as the Alcázar of Seville (pronounced [alˈkaθaɾ]), is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile.