Sep 15, 2017 · Vocal music takes on distinctly different forms in cultures outside of the European tradition. In countries such as India, vocal music can include notes that are nonexistent on the Western eight-note octave. Other countries continue to pass on vocal music, such as folk songs, through the oral tradition instead of written form.
Aug 23, 2010 · Folk music in India is often described as desi (or deshi), meaning “of the country”, to distinguish it from art music, known as marga (meaning “chaste” and, by extension, classical). Desi, a catchall term, also embraces folk theatre and popular music of many colours.
- What Is Indian Classical Music?
- What Makes It Different from Other Indian Music Like Folk Or Bollywood?
- Which Instruments Are Used in Indian Classical Music?
- What Is A Performance like?
Indian classical music is a rich tradition that originated in South Asia and can now be found in all corners of the world. It’s origins date back to sacred Vedic scriptures over 6,000 years ago where chants developed a system of musical notes and rhythmic cycles. In this way, Indian classical music is very closely connected to nature, taking inspiration from natural phenomena including the seasons and times of the day to create ‘ragas’ or musical moods and many time cycles or ‘taals’ that have been further codified. Compositions are fixed but most of the music is improvised within the structure of notes and mathematics. This gives the music a spontaneous freedom where each artist and every performance is ensured to be completely unique. Indian classical music is generally passed down in an oral tradition where the student would spend many years with their ‘guru’, developing a very special, spiritual bond, imbibing all aspects of the music along with philosophical and moral principle...
It’s all about the context and purpose. Folk music is generally performed at local celebrations and its focus is bringing communities together. Although it also has a rich historical tradition, the classical form has been codified, studied and elaborated upon in a very disciplined way. Classical music is inspired by folk melodies and forms but the majority of the repertoire requires more rigour and in-depth training. Folk music of Rajasthan Bollywood music has been very inspired by the classical tradition with many film songs having been composed in ‘ragas’ but it’s purpose is mainly for entertainment and excitement whereas many classical musicians will say that their music is for enlightenment instead. Bollywood song from the film Devdas
Many different instruments have been used and developed for Indian classical music such as: Sitar- The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument used in Hindustani (North Indian) classical music. The instrument flourished under the Mughals and it is named after a Persian instrument called the setar (meaning three strings). The sitar flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries and arrived at its present form in 18th-century India. It derives its distinctive timbre and resonance from sympathetic strings, bridge design, a long hollow neck and a gourd-shaped resonance chamber. Tabla- The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music. It has been a particularly important instrument in Hindustani classical music since the 18th century, and remains in use in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Vocal– Many instruments aim to emulate the voic...
Performances take place in a chamber setting and focus on the solo performer, who is accompanied by a drone and rhythm. Melody, and the relationship between notes, is more important than harmony. An extensive system of ornamentations such as gliding, vibrato and oscillation – are used to embellish the melodic lines. In many cases, the performers will begin with a slow introductory section called ‘alaap’ and then gradually increase the improvisations and tempo with different compositions into a fast crescendo. Here’s an example of a performance organised by Making Music member, the Sitar Music Society. You can learn how to listen to or play Indian classical music with the Sitar Music Society’s events and workshops. We hope you find this Making Music resource useful. If you have any comments or suggestions about the guidance please contact us. Whilst every effort is made to ensure that the content of this guidance is accurate and up to date, Making Music do not warrant, nor accept any...
Several styles of Indian vocal music use the voice to perform ragas, sung lines using a limited range of notes in a highly embellished style that might be improvised, meaning the melody is not ...
- 5 min
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- The Earlier Days of ‘Sangeet’
- The Persian Influence – Sufism
- ‘Hindustani’ Music
- ‘Carnatic’ Music
- Instruments of Indian Music
- Folk Music
- Musical Instruments
In the earlier days, when Indian music was just coming of age, the music was devotional in nature. It was restricted only to temples and used for ritualistic purposes. It is said that the sound that pervades the whole universe, i.e. Nadabrahma, itself represents the divinity. Organized Indian music owes its origin to the Samaveda. The Veda has all the seven notes of the raga karaharpriya in the descending order. The earliest Raga is speculated to be ‘Sama Raga’. Theories and treatises began to be written, how the primitive sound ‘Om’ gave rise to the various notes. Then later on forms like ‘Prabandh Sangeet’, which was in sanskrit, and ‘dhruvapad’, in hindi became popular. With the coming of the Gupta era, which is considered as the golden era in the development of Indian music, the music treatises like ‘Natya Shastra’ and ‘Brihaddeshi’ were written.
The ‘sufi’ influence in the hindustani music during the medieval period were fused with ideas from Persian music, particularly through the influence of sufi composers like Amir Khusru and Tansen. However, Amir Khusru is erroneously referred to as the inventor of the sitar and tabla and numerous musical forms which were not developed until many centuries after his death. He symbolizes a crucial turning point in the development of Indian music. Amir Khusru is an icon representing a growing Persian influence on the music. This influence was felt to a greater extent in the North than in the South. The consequence of this differing degree of influence ultimately resulted in the bifurcation of Indian music into two distinct systems; the ‘Hindustani sangeet’ of the North and the ‘Carnatic sangeet’ of the South.
Indian music got divided after the 14th century. Hindustani music seems to have been profusely influenced by the music of Persia and Arabia. It emphasizes on the musical structure and the possibilities of improvisation in it. The main architect of the existing system of Hindustani music was Pandit V N Bhatkhande, who was responsible for the classification of the Ragas into the 10 ‘thats’. Hindustani music has a number of embellishments and ornamentations or Gamaks like Meend, Kana, Murki, etc. which enhances its aesthetic appeal. The tabla plays a very important role in maintaining the rhythm during a Hindustani concert. There are a number of Tals like Ek-Tal, Jhap-Tal, Dadra, Teen-Tal and so on. Each Tal has its own characteristics. Dhrupad is the oldest and perhaps the grandest form of Hindustani vocal music. It is said to have descended from an older form called the prabandha (nonexistant today) and adapted for court performance during the reign of Raja Man Singh Tomar of Gwalior...
Carnatic music is ‘kriti’ based and ‘saahitya’ (lyric) oriented. It is said to have maintained the pure form of Classical music based on ‘ragas’ and ‘taalas’ retaining the traditional octave. Spiritualism has always been the prominent content of Carnatic music. One of the greatest influences in the development of Karnatic music was that of the immortal bard, Purandara Dasa. He composed the ‘Swaravali'(simple exercises based on the Scale), ‘Alankaras'(exercises based on the seven basic Talas) and ‘Gitams'(simple melodic compositions in praise of the various deities). He also created the musical form, ‘Kriti’ which was later perfected by the great composer ‘Thyagaraja’. Carnatic music is not based on logarithmic division but on rational division. An octave is based on the ratio 1:2, Pa is located through the ratio 2:3. Similar definitions exist for all the twelve ‘swarasthanas’. A few centuries ago, Western classical music too was based on rational division (the resulting scale was ca...
Being monophonician in nature,Indian classical music is based around a single melody line. The performance of a composition begins with the performers coming out in a ritualized order — drone instruments, then the soloist, then accompanists and percussionists. The musicians begin by tuning their instruments. This process often blends naturally into the beginning of the music. Indian musical instruments used in classical music include veena, mridangam, tabla, kanjira, tambura, flute, sitar, gottuvadyam, violin and sarangi.
People think that folk music is same as tribal music. Folk music is a mere rustic reflection of the larger Indian society, whereas tribal music often represents cultures that are very different. Some of these tribal cultures are throwbacks to cultural conditions as they were thousands of years ago. Folk music is not taught in the same way that Indian classical music is taught. There is no formal period of apprenticeship where the student is able to devote their entire life to learning the music, the economics of rural life does not permit this sort of thing. The musical practitioners must still attend to their normal duties of hunting, agriculture or whatever their chosen profession is. Music in the villages is learned almost by osmosis. From childhood the music is heard and imbibed along with ones mother’s milk. There are numerous public activities that allow the villagers to practice and hone their skills. These are the normal functions which synchronize village life with the univ...
Musical instruments are often different from those found in classical music. Although instruments like the tabla may sometimes be found it is more likely that cruder drums such as daf, dholak, or nal will be used. The sitar and sarod which are so common in the classical genre are absent in the folk music. One often finds instruments such as the ektar, dotar, saringda, rabab, and santur. Quite often they will not even be called these names, but may be named according to their local dialect. There are also instruments which are used only in particular folk styles in particular regions. These instruments are innumerable.
Carnatic music or Carnatic sangeet is the south Indian classical music. Carnatic music has a rich history and tradition and is one of the gems of world music. Carnatic Sangeet has developed in the south Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Indian Film Music. One of the most popular Indian music forms is the Filmi ...
May 03, 2012 · However, history of Indian music can be broadly divided into three periods: Ancient , Medieval and Modern . Ancient Period means the Vedic Age which covered upto around 2000 B.C. Vedic literature says that during those times the sages used to sing and their wives used to play instruments like Veena .
Although the classical system of music in India has contributed many exercises to develop the skill of singing, a comprehensive study of all the scientific aspects related to voice cultivation and also the practice of technically developed exercises will help the singers to analyze their own voice and to manipulate the vocal apparatus for the ...
Hindustani classical music is an Indian classical music tradition. It originated in North India around 13th and 14th centuries. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition from South India, the Hindustani classical music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions and Vedic philosophy but also by the Persian elements.