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  1. Zoroastrianism - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Zoroastrianism

    2 days ago · With possible roots dating back to the Second Millennium BCE, Zoroastrianism enters written history in the 5th century BCE. It served as the state religion of the ancient Iranian empires for more than a millennium, from around 600 BCE to 650 CE, but declined from the 7th century CE onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 ...

  2. Biblical Hebrew - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Biblical_Hebrew

    2 days ago · Hebrew developed during the latter half of the second millennium BCE between the Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea, an area known as Canaan.

  3. Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Early_Dynastic_Period

    6 days ago · The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.

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  5. Fascinating Facts About Mesmerizing Mesopotamia - Toptenz.net

    www.toptenz.net › fascinating-facts-about

    Jun 02, 2021 · Mesopotamian erotic art was mass-produced as far back as the early second millennium BCE during the Old Babylonian period. Small terracotta plaques depicting various sexual acts have been discovered at excavation sites of former temples, graves, and private homes — underscoring the popularity and wide acceptance of what would now be ...

    • Christopher Warner
  6. From Polytheism To Monotheism : A Quest For Power? – The ...

    themoderatevoice.com › from-polytheism-to

    May 26, 2021 · And yet the push for a central true god, a world dominated by monotheism, prevailed in the West. Today, approximately 3 billion people worship a variant of the god who “revealed himself to Abraham...

  7. Legions of Spain, Roman Africa & Egypt - World History ...

    www.worldhistory.org › article › 1757
    • The only Legion of Spain - Legio VII Gemina
    • The Lone Legion of Roman Africa - Legio III Augusta
    • The Legions of Egypt

    For decades Spain was a place of constant turmoil between Rome and Carthage across the sea. In 219 the BCE Carthaginian commander Hannibal (247-183 BCE) attacked the Roman-protected city of Saguntum, triggering the onset of the Second Punic War. With the end of the war in 201 BCE at the Battle of Zama, Rome divided Spain into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. Later, Augustus would reorganize it into Baetica, Lusitania, and Tarraconensis. The northern part of Spain was home to the Cantabrians whose aggression against its neighbors eventually brought Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) and Rome into a war that lasted on and off for ten years. In 27 BCE, Augustus commanded six legions: I Germanica, II Augusta, IIII Macedonica, VI Victrix, IX Hispana, and X Gemina — totaling over 70,000 legionaries and auxiliaries — against the Cantabrians and Astures. When the province was finally appeased, the legions, except for VI Victrix, were gradually transferred to other troubled...

    As with the creation of the province of Spain, Roman Africa or Africa Proconsularis emerged after the fall of Carthage in 146 BCE. Although there is mention of a short-lived I Macriana Libiratrix in 68 CE, during most of the imperial period only one legion, III Augusta (emblem: Pegasus; birth sign: Capricorn), called the region home. Since the area was not initially the scene of any external threats, many in Rome believed the legion could govern itself. Most of the legion’s duties were to subdue any political unrest and build roads. Although little of the legion’s origin is clear, Dando-Collins writes that it appeared around 30 BCE and may have been a descendent of Pompey’s (106-48 BCE) third legion. Legio III Augusta was with Octavian at Actium against Anthony and Cleopatra and probably received its title Augusta for its participation in the Cantabrian campaign. From 17 to 23 CE, with assistance from IX Hispana, the legion fought against the Numidian and Moorish cavalry under the l...

    Two legions that called Egypt home were XXII Deiotariana and II Traiana Fortis, sharing a fortress at Nicopolis (Alexandria). For a short time, III Cyrenaica was also stationed in Egypt but later moved to Arabia. The legion's main task was to ensure internal security and suppress any unrest that might inhibit the shipment of grain to Rome. Legio XXII Deiotariana Legio XXII Deiotariana (emblem: Jupiter-Ammon or eagle; birth sign: unknown) was named after King Deiotarus of Galatia who had trained his army in the Roman style. In 48 BCE, King Pharnaces II of Pontus threatened Roman allies in Asia Minor, including Galatia. The Roman governor Gnaeus Calavinus met the invaders in battle but was soundly defeated by Pharnaces. In 47 BCE, Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE), who was in Egypt at the time, responded and, refusing a peaceful settlement, fought Pharnaces at Zela in Pontus. With the help of the depleted army of Deiotarus, the Romans were victorious. Suetonius in his The Twelve Caesarswrote...

  8. Beit Shemesh’s Three Millennia of Jewish History » Mosaic

    mosaicmagazine.com › picks › history-ideas

    Jun 01, 2021 · Even more astounding are the discoveries concerning the Hasmonean and early Roman periods, i.e. from about 160 BCE to 135 CE: Late Second Temple-period settlements share a distinct material culture, such as the presence of ritual baths (or mikva’ot), of which at least seven have been found at Beit Shemesh) and limestone vessels, and an ...

  9. Assyria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Assyria

    May 26, 2021 · Assyria (/ ə ˈ s ɪ r i ə /), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC (in the form of the Assur city-state) until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC; thereby spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.

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