The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. The Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Mycenaean Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium see
The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000 (11th to 20th centuries; in astronomy: JD 2 086 667.5 – 2 451 909.5).. It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages of the Old World, the Islamic Golden Age and the period of Renaissance, followed by the Early Modern period, characterized by the Wars of Religion in Europe, the Age of ...
- Standard 1
- Standard 2
- Standard 3
- Standard 4
The major characteristics of civilization and how civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus valley. Standard 1A The student understands how Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus valley became centers of dense population, urbanization, and cultural innovation in the fourth and third millennia BCE. Standard 1B The student understands how commercial and cultural interactions contributed to change in the Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Nile regions.
How agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE. Standard 2A The student understands how civilization emerged in northern China in the second millennium BCE. Standard 2B The student understands how new centers of agrarian society arose in the third and second millennia BCE.
The political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE. Standard 3A The student understands how population movements from western and Central Asia affected peoples of India, Southwest Asia, and the Mediterranean region. Standard 3B The student understands the social and cultural effects that militarization and the emergence of new kingdoms had on peoples of Southwest Asia and Egypt in the second millennium BCE. Standard 3C The student understands how urban society expanded in the Aegean region in the era of Mycenaean dominance. Standard 3D The student understands the development of new cultural patterns in northern India in the second millennium BCE.
Major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE. Standard 4A The student understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE.
The Vedic period (2nd millennium–7th century bce) The people of the early Vedic period left few material remains, but they did leave a very important literary record called the Rigveda. Its 1,028 hymns are distributed throughout 10 books, of which the first and the last are the most recent.
The texts of the Linear В tablets in the second half of the second millennium BCE. The Greek language as written in the Linear B script is conventionally called Mycenaean. 2. The texts of the first millennium BCE, written in the Greek alphabet, which show four basic dialectal divisions.
It is the second part of a series of articles that aims to make available the so-called satellite archives of the Ṣāḫiṭ-ginê A archive (“Marduk-rēmanni archive”) and related and unrelated smaller archives from Sippar, all dating to the long sixth century BCE. KW - Neo-Babylonian period. KW - Archival studies. KW - Cuneiform Archives
- Instead of Ad and BC
- Both in Use For Centuries
- More and More Use CE/BCE
- Avoid Confusion
CE and BCE are used in exactly the same way as the traditional abbreviations AD and BC. 1. AD is short for Anno Domini, Latin for year of the Lord. 2. BC is an abbreviation of Before Christ. Because AD and BC hold religious (Christian) connotations, many prefer to use the more modern and neutral CE and BCE to indicate if a year is before or after year 1. According to the international standard for calendar dates, ISO 8601, both systems are acceptable.
The Anno Domini year–numbering system was introduced by a Christian monk named Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century. The year count starts with year 1 in the Gregorian calendar. This is supposed to be the birth year of Jesus, although modern historians often conclude that he was born around 4 years earlier. The expression Common Era is also no new invention, it has been in use for several hundred years. In English, it is found in writings as early as 1708. In Latin, the term "vulgaris aerae" (English, Vulgar Era) was used interchangeably with "Christian Era" as far back as in the 1600s.
What isrelatively new is that more and more countries and their educational institutions have officially replaced the traditional abbreviations AD/BC with CE/BCE. England and Wales introduced the CE/BCE system into the official school curriculum in 2002, and Australia followed in 2011. More and more textbooks in the United States also use CE/BCE, as well as history tests issued by the US College Board.
A year listed without any letters is always Common Era, starting from year 1. Adding CE or BCE after a year is only necessary if there is room for misunderstanding, e.g. in texts where years both before and after year 1 are mentioned. For instance, Pompeii, Italy (see image) was founded around 600–700 BCE and was destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 CE. Topics: Calendar, Dates
- Early History
- Sennacherib's City
- Aššurbanipal's City
- The End
- Later History
Nineveh, the last capital of Assyria, is situated on the east bank of the river Tigris, at the place where this stream is joined by the small river Khosr, which divides the town into a northern and a southern half. Both halves have a citadel close to their west wall: the southern hill is called Nebi Yunus ("prophet Jonah") after the old Islamic mausoleum on that site, while the northern hill is called Kuyunjik. The most ancient remains in Nineveh date back to the seventh millennium BCE. There is some splendid pottery, but little is known about this very early period. What is reasonably clear, however, is that in the second millennium, Nineveh was already a town of some importance with an important sanctuary, dedicated to the goddess Ištar. Among the finds is a famous portrait of an Akkadian king, often identified with Sargon the Great (c.2300 BCE), but in fact representing his son Maništušu (c.2250 BCE). The town must have been a station along the great road that connected Elam, Bab...
Sennacherib describes his building activities in a stele, which today can be seen in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum: The brick wall of Nineveh had a circumference of some twelve kilometers and surrounded an area of 720 hectares. (Compare the Servian Wallof Rome: eleven kilometers.) There were fifteen gates. To make sure there was enough water, a canal with a length of ninety-five kilometers was dug, which included an aqueduct at Jerwan, some 65 kilometers upstream from Nineveh. The city of Sennacherib may have had some 100,000 inhabitants. On Kuyunjik hill (north of the river Khosr), Sennacherib built his "palace without rival", which is also known as the "southwestern palace" and measured about 500 x 250 meters, comprising about eighty rooms. There were many reliefs, including one that shows the capture of Lachish in Judah in 701 BCE, an event also known from the Bible.note[2 Kings18.] On the Nebi Yunus hill, Sennacherib's son and successor Esarhaddon (r.680-661) would build an...
Esarhaddon's successor Aššurbanipal(r.668-631) built a second palace on Kuyunjik, usually called the "northern palace". It replaced an older palace, "the house of succession", which had until then been inhabited by the crown prince. The northern palace is famous for the reliefs of the lion hunt. The equally famous "Library of Aššurbanipal" is in fact a collection of more than 30,000 tablets found on various locations and not a real library. It offered modern scholars a first glimp of Mesopotamian literature.
In 612 BCE a coalition of Babylonian and Median troops sacked Nineveh, an event described in the Fall of Nineveh Chronicle. It must have been a difficult campaign, because the city could not be approached from the west, where it was protected by the Tigris, while it was protected by the very impressive "wall whose splendor overwhelms the enemy" on the other sides. The last Assyrian armies made their last stand in Harran. The Biblical prophet Nahum is the only source that documents joy about the fall of the city. Although this was the end of the Assyrian Empire, it was not the end of Nineveh. In 401 BCE, the Greek mercenary leader Xenophon stayed in a place called Mespila,note[Xenophon, Anabasis 3.4.10-12.]and his description is sufficiently accurate to identify the town as Nineveh. Today, the name "Mespila" is rendered as "Mosul".
Archaeological finds from tombs document the survival of Nineveh in the Parthian age. Writing at the beginning of the common era, Greek geographer Strabo mentions the city and its plain.note[Strabo, Geography 16.1.1.] The Greek author Philostratus refers to a Damis of Nineveh, who was the companion of the first-century CE philosopher Apollonius of Tyana. In 627 CE, Nineveh was the site of an important battle between the Byzantines and Sasanian Persians. The city was abandoned after the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century. In the Greek tradition, there were several legends about Nineveh, its founder Ninus, and its queen Semiramis, but these stories contain little historical information and make no clear distinction between Assyria and Babylonia.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE. The period in which the First Tem...
This is the third and final volume publishing the results of excavations at Tel Batash (biblical Timnah) directed by Amihai Mazar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This volume presents the finds from the Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and