The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. The Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Mycenaean Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium see
The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000. It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages of the Old World, the Islamic Golden Age and the period of Renaissance, followed by the Early Modern period, characterized by the Wars of Religion in Europe, the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of Discovery and the colonial period. Its final two centuries coincide with Modern history, characterized by industrialization, the rise of nation states, the
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The major characteristics of civilization and how civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus valley. Standard 1A The student understands how Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus valley became centers of dense population, urbanization, and cultural innovation in the fourth and third millennia BCE. Standard 1B The student understands how commercial and cultural interactions contributed to change in the Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Nile regions.
How agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE. Standard 2A The student understands how civilization emerged in northern China in the second millennium BCE. Standard 2B The student understands how new centers of agrarian society arose in the third and second millennia BCE.
The political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE. Standard 3A The student understands how population movements from western and Central Asia affected peoples of India, Southwest Asia, and the Mediterranean region. Standard 3B The student understands the social and cultural effects that militarization and the emergence of new kingdoms had on peoples of Southwest Asia and Egypt in the second millennium BCE. Standard 3C The student understands how urban society expanded in the Aegean region in the era of Mycenaean dominance. Standard 3D The student understands the development of new cultural patterns in northern India in the second millennium BCE.
Major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE. Standard 4A The student understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE.
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Cesare Emiliani's proposal for a calendar reform sought to solve a number of alleged problems with the current Anno Dominiera, which number the years of the commonly accepted world calendar. These issues include: 1. The Anno Domini era is based on the erroneous estimation of the birth year of Jesus. The era places Jesus's birth year in AD 1, but modern scholars have determined that he was likely born in or before 4 BC. Emiliani argued that replacing it with the approximate beginning of the Holocenemakes more sense. 2. The birth date of Jesus is a less universally relevant epoch eventthan the approximate beginning of the Holocene. 3. The years BC/BCE are counted down when moving from past to future, making calculation of time spans difficult. 4. The Anno Domini era has no year zero, with 1 BC followed immediately by AD 1, complicating the calculation of timespans further. This is equally true of the Common Era, its non-religious equivalent. Instead, HE uses the "beginning of human er...
Conversion from Julian or Gregorian calendaryears to the Human Era can be achieved by adding 10,000 to the AD/CE year. The present year, 2021, can be transformed into a Holocene year by adding the digit "1" before it, making it 12,021 HE. Years BC/BCE are converted by subtracting the BC/BCE year number from 10,001.Before Present, the notation most widely used today in scientific literature for dates in prehistory.David Ewing Duncan (1999). The Calendar. pp. 331–332. ISBN 978-1-85702-979-6.Duncan Steel (2000). Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 149–151. ISBN 978-0-471-29827-4.Günther A. Wagner (1998). Age Determination of Young Rocks and Artifacts: Physical and Chemical Clocks in Quaternary Geology and Archeology. Springer. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-540-63436-2.
Assyria and Babylonia at the end of the 2nd millennium Babylonia under the 2nd dynasty of Isin In a series of heavy wars about which not much is known, Marduk-kabit-ahheshu (c. 1152– c. 1135) established what came to be known as the 2nd dynasty of Isin. His successors were often forced to continue the fighting.
HUMAN EVOLUTION The formation of human populations ... in the first half of the second millennium BCE, ... (ii) early ceramic-using hunter ...
Mesolithic (Epipaleolithic) – was a period in the development of human technology between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods. Neolithic – a period of primitive technological and social development, beginning about 10,200 BCE in parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world.
1st Millennium BCE. This is the period of the Assyrian Empire. Three major phases. First phase. Early 9th century BCE. Capital located at Nimrud. Expansion of the empire. Adad-nirari II (911-891 BCE) Capture of northern Babylonia.
The 1st millennium BCE, especially the Iron Age II, is such a period in which the archaeobotanical knowledge is more fragmented. Regarding the fact that economic texts are also absent in this period, archaeobotanical research becomes the only viable way to produce new data on the agricultural economy.
- Jan Dusek