- General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907–1915. The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example, when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical.
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May 16, 2017 · Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity is famous for predicting some really weird but true phenomena, like astronauts aging slower than people on Earth and solid objects changing their shapes at...
Apr 13, 2018 · When the theory of relativity appeared in the early 1900s, it upended centuries of science and gave physicists a new understanding of space and time. Isaac Newton saw space and time as fixed, but...
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General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907–1915. The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle , under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example, when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical.
In 1905, Albert Einstein determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers, and that the speed of light in a vacuum was independent of the motion of all observers....
- Introduction to Relativity
- Special Theory of Relativity
- General Theory of Relativity
Relativity is a theorem, formulated by Albert Einstein, which states that space and time are relative and all the motion must be relative to a frame of reference. It is a notion that states, laws of physics are the same everywhere. This theory is simple but hard to understand. It states: 1. There is no absolute reference frame. One can measure velocity if the object or momentum is only in relation to other objects. 2. The speed of light is constant irrespective of who measures it or how fast the person measuring it, is moving. Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity encompasses two theories, namely Special Relativity Theory and General Relativity Theory.
Einstein first introduced this term in the year 1905. It is a theorem that deals with the structure of space-time. Einstein explained this theory based on two postulates – 1. The laws of physics are the same for all irrespective of the velocity of the observer. 2. The speed of light is always constant regardless of the motion of the light source or the motion of the observer. 1. Relativity of simultaneity – two actions, simultaneous for one person may not be simultaneous for another person in relative motion. 2. Length Shrinking: Objects are measured and appeared to be shorter in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. 3. Mass – Energy Equivalence: Study of relativity lead to one of the greatest inventions i.e., E = mc2 where E is Energy, m stands for mass and c for the velocity of light. Many scientists observed that the mass of the object is increased with the velocity but never knew how to calculate it. This equation is the answer to their problem, which...
General Relativity theory developed by Einstein in the year 1907-1915 states that being at rest in the gravitational field and accelerating are identical physically. For example, an observer can see the ball fall the same way on the rocket and on Earth. This is due to the acceleration of the rocket, which is equal to 9.8 m/s2. This theory relates to Newton’s gravitational theory and special relativity.
The general theory of relativity (or general relativity for short) is a major building block of modern physics. It explains gravity based on the way space can 'curve', or, to put it more accurately, it associates the force of gravity with the changing geometry of space-time.
- Theory of Relativity Concepts
- Introduction to Special Relativity
- Einstein's Postulates
- Effects of Special Relativity
- Mass-Energy Relationship
- Speed of Light
- Adopting Special Relativity
- Origins of Lorentz Transformations
- Consequences of The Transformations
Einstein's theory of relativity includes the interworking of several different concepts, which include: 1. Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity- localized behavior of objects in inertial frames of reference, generally only relevant at speeds very near the speed of light 2. Lorentz Transformations- the transformation equations used to calculate the coordinate changes under special relativity 3. Einstein's Theory of General Relativity - the more comprehensive theory, which treats gravity as a geometric phenomenon of a curved spacetime coordinate system, which also includes noninertial (i.e. accelerating) frames of reference 4. Fundamental Principles of Relativity
Classical relativity (defined initially by Galileo Galilei and refined by Sir Isaac Newton) involves a simple transformation between a moving object and an observer in another inertial frame of reference. If you are walking in a moving train, and someone stationery on the ground is watching, your speed relative to the observer will be the sum of your speed relative to the train and the train's speed relative to the observer. You're in one inertial frame of reference, the train itself (and anyone sitting still on it) are in another, and the observer is in still another. The problem with this is that light was believed, in the majority of the 1800s, to propagate as a wave through a universal substance known as the ether, which would have counted as a separate frame of reference (similar to the train in the above example). The famed Michelson-Morley experiment,however, had failed to detect Earth's motion relative to the ether and no one could explain why. Something was wrong with the c...
In 1905, Albert Einstein published (among other things) a paper called "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" in the journal Annalen der Physik. The paper presented the theory of special relativity, based on two postulates:
Actually, the paper presents a more formal, mathematical formulation of the postulates. The phrasing of the postulates is slightly different from the textbook to a textbook because of translation issues, from mathematical German to comprehensible English. The second postulate is often mistakenly written to include that the speed of light in a vacuum is cin all frames of reference. This is actually a derived result of the two postulates, rather than part of the second postulate itself. The first postulate is pretty much common sense. The second postulate, however, was the revolution. Einstein had already introduced the photon theory of light in his paper on the photoelectric effect (which rendered the ether unnecessary). The second postulate, therefore, was a consequence of massless photons moving at the velocity cin a vacuum. The ether no longer had a special role as an "absolute" inertial frame of reference, so it was not only unnecessary but qualitatively useless under special rel...
Special relativity yields several consequences from applying Lorentz transformations at high velocities (near the speed of light). Among them are: 1. Time dilation (including the popular "twin paradox") 2. Length contraction 3. Velocity transformation 4. Relativistic velocity addition 5. Relativistic doppler effect 6. Simultaneity & clock synchronization 7. Relativistic momentum 8. Relativistic kinetic energy 9. Relativistic mass 10. Relativistic total energy In addition, simple algebraic manipulations of the above concepts yield two significant results that deserve individual mention.
Einstein was able to show that mass and energy were related, through the famous formula E=mc2. This relationship was proven most dramatically to the world when nuclear bombs released the energy of mass in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
No object with mass can accelerate to precisely the speed of light. A massless object, like a photon, can move at the speed of light. (A photon doesn't actually accelerate, though, since it always moves exactly at the speed of light.) But for a physical object, the speed of light is a limit. The kinetic energyat the speed of light goes to infinity, so it can never be reached by acceleration. Some have pointed out that an object could in theory move at greater than the speed of light, so long as it did not accelerate to reach that speed. So far no physical entities have ever displayed that property, however.
In 1908, Max Planckapplied the term "theory of relativity" to describe these concepts, because of the key role relativity played in them. At the time, of course, the term applied only to special relativity, because there was not yet any general relativity. Einstein's relativity was not immediately embraced by physicists as a whole because it seemed so theoretical and counterintuitive. When he received his 1921 Nobel Prize, it was specifically for his solution to the photoelectric effectand for his "contributions to Theoretical Physics." Relativity was still too controversial to be specifically referenced. Over time, however, the predictions of special relativity have been shown to be true. For example, clocks flown around the world have been shown to slow down by the duration predicted by the theory.
Albert Einstein didn't create the coordinate transformations needed for special relativity. He didn't have to because the Lorentz transformations that he needed already existed. Einstein was a master at taking previous work and adapting it to new situations, and he did so with the Lorentz transformations just as he had used Planck's 1900 solution to the ultraviolet catastrophe in black body radiation to craft his solution to the photoelectric effect, and thus develop the photon theory of light. The transformations were actually first published by Joseph Larmor in 1897. A slightly different version had been published a decade earlier by Woldemar Voigt, but his version had a square in the time dilation equation. Still, both versions of the equation were shown to be invariant under Maxwell's equation. The mathematician and physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz proposed the idea of a "local time" to explain relative simultaneity in 1895, though and began working independently on similar tran...
Special relativity yields several consequences from applying Lorentz transformations at high velocities (near the speed of light). Among them are: 1. Time dilation (including the popular "Twin Paradox") 2. Length contraction 3. Velocity transformation 4. Relativistic velocity addition 5. Relativistic doppler effect 6. Simultaneity & clock synchronization 7. Relativistic momentum 8. Relativistic kinetic energy 9. Relativistic mass 10. Relativistic total energy
Mar 30, 2017 · The theory of special relativity explains how space and time are linked for objects that are moving at a consistent speed in a straight line. One of its most famous aspects concerns objects moving...
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