Oct 09, 2019 · The John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Español Fall 2017, Vol. 49, No. 3 By James Mathis and Martha Wagner Murphy Enlarge A photograph from Warren Commission exhibits shows the open limousine that carried President and Mrs. Kennedy through downtown Dallas. Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, sat in front of them. (National Archives, RG 272) No other event of the last 75 ...
- Film and Audio Captures of Assassination Events
- Official Investigations
- Conspiracy Theories
- Reactions to The Assassination
- Artifacts, Museums and Locations Today
- See Also
- External Links
Kennedy traveled to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough, Don Yarborough, and conservative Texas governor John Connally.The visit was first agreed upon by Kennedy, Texas native Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, and Connally during a meeting in El Paso in June.Kennedy had three basic goals in mind: 1. To help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions; 2. To begin his quest for reelection in November 1964;and 3. To h...
Route to Dealey Plaza
Kennedy's itinerary called for him to arrive at Dallas Love Field via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth.The motorcade route through Dallas – with Kennedy, Connally, and their wives together in a single limousine, and Johnson and his wife two cars behind – was intended to give Kennedy maximum exposure to local crowds before his arrival for a luncheon at the Trade Mart, where he would meet with civic and business leaders. Kenneth O'Donnell, Kennedy's friend and appointme...
Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
The limousine was passing the grassy knoll to the north of Elm Street at the time of the fatal head shot. As the motorcade left Dealey Plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the grassy hill and from the triple underpass, to the area behind a five-foot (1.5 m) high stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No sniper was found there.S. M. Holland, who had been watching the motorcade on the triple underpass, testified that "immediately" after the shots were fired, he...
On Sunday, November 24, Kennedy's coffin was carried on a horse-drawn caisson to the United States Capitol to lie in state. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands of people lined up to view the guarded casket. Representatives from over 90 countries attended the state funeral on Monday, November 25. After the Requiem Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral, Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, just outside Washington in Virginia.
No radio or television stations broadcast the assassination live. Most media crews did not ride with the motorcade, but were instead waiting at the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of Kennedy's arrival there. Members of the media who were with the motorcade were riding at the rear of the procession. The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two different channels. Channel One was used for routine police communications, while Channel Two was dedicated to the motorcade; until shots were fired, most traffic on the second channel was Police Chief Jesse Curry's updates on the motorcade's location. Kennedy's last seconds of traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8 mm film for the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, and became known as the Zapruder film. Frame enlargements from the Zapruder film were published by Lif...
After the Dallas Police arrested Oswald and collected physical evidence at the crime scenes, they held Oswald at their headquarters, questioning him all afternoon about the shootings of Kennedy and Tippit. They intermittently questioned him for approximately 12 hours between 2:30 p.m., on November 22, and 11 a.m., on November 24. Throughout, Oswald denied any involvement with either shooting. Captain Fritz of the homicide and robbery bureau did most of the questioning; he kept only rudimentar...
On December 9, 1963, the Warren Commission received the FBI's report of its investigation which concluded that three bullets had been fired—the first hitting Kennedy, the second hitting Connally, and the third hitting Kennedy in the head, killing him. The Warren Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one passed through Kennedy and then struck Connally, and a third struck Kennedy in the head.
The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by President Johnson to investigate the assassination. Its 888-page final report was presented to Johnson on September 24, 1964, and made public three days later. It concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone in killing Kennedy and wounding Connally, and that Jack Ruby acted alone in killing Oswald. The commission's findings have proven...
Many conspiracy theories posit that the assassination involved people or organizations in addition to Lee Harvey Oswald. Most current theories put forth a criminal conspiracy involving parties as varied as the FBI, the CIA, the U.S. military, the Mafia, Vice President Johnson, Cuban President Fidel Castro, the KGB, or some combination of those entities. Public opinion polls have consistently shown that a majority of Americans believe there was a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Gallup polls have also found that only 20–30% of the population believe that Oswald had acted alone. These polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved. Former Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Bugliosiestimated that a total of 42 groups, 82 assassins, and 214 people had been accused in various Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories.
The assassination evoked stunned reactions worldwide. The first hour after the shooting was a time of great confusion before the President's death was announced. The incident took place during the Cold War, and it was at first unclear whether the shooting might be part of a larger attack upon the United States. There was also concern whether Vice President Johnson, who had been riding two cars behind in the motorcade, was safe. The news shocked the nation. People wept openly and gathered in department stores to watch the television coverage, while others prayed. Traffic in some areas came to a halt as the news spread from car to car. Schools across the United States dismissed their students early. Anger against Texas and Texans was reported from some individuals. Various Cleveland Browns fans, for example, carried signs at the next Sunday's home game against the Dallas Cowboysdecrying the city of Dallas as having "killed the President". However, there were also instances of Kennedy'...
The VC-137C SAM 26000 that served as Air Force One at the time of the assassination is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. The 1961 Lincoln Continental limousine is on display at the Henry Ford Museumin Dearborn, Michigan. Jacqueline Kennedy's pink suit, the autopsy report, the X-rays, and President Kennedy's blood-stained clothing are in the National Archives, with access controlled by the Kennedy family. Other items in the Archives include equipment from Parkland Hospital trauma room; Oswald's rifle, diary, and revolver; bullet fragments; and the windshield of Kennedy's limousine. The Lincoln Catafalque, on which Kennedy's coffin rested in the Capitol, is on display at the United States Capitol Visitor Center. In 1993 the three-acre park within Dealey Plaza, the buildings facing it, the overpass, and a portion of the adjacent railyard – including the railroad switching tower – were incorporated into the Dealey Plaza Historic District b...
Sep 23, 2020 · A Lincoln convertible that President John F. Kennedy rode in on the day he was assassinated is being offered for sale at the virtual Bonham’s American President Experience Auction on Oct. 14 ...
the Kennedy story than simply chronicling the events of JFK's life and "deciding whether Kennedy deserves to be admitted to the Val-halla of 'Great Presidents.'"5 The Kennedy assassination is a credible example. Most history teachers, though, have proven obdurately The History Teacher Volume 20 Number 1 November 1986
As with the 1963 assassination of his brother, President John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy's death has been the subject of widespread analysis. Some individuals involved in the original investigation and some researchers have suggested alternative scenarios for the crime, or have argued that there are serious problems with the official case.
- Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States (1861–65). He was commander-in-chief during the entire American Civil War.
- John F. Kennedy by Lee Harvey Oswald. The assassination of President Kennedy stands out as the most infamous and shocking murder of the twentieth century.
- Lee Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby. The idea that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in his assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been widely disputed. Rampant conspiracy theories have become mainstream, from linking the Soviet Union, the Mafia, Vice-President Lyndon Johnson, and others to the killing over the years.
- William McKinley by Leon Czolgosz. William McKinley was a popular U.S. President in 1901. The country just elected him to a second term by a comfortable margin over his opponent.
Buffalos Pan-American Exposition boasted everything from a nine-ton elephant to a 389-foot Electric Tower powered by nearby Niagara Falls, but few attractions had generated as much excitement as the two-day visit of President William McKinley. The 58-year-old was fresh off of guiding the United States to victory in the Spanish-American War, and he had entered his second term of office as one of the most popular Chief Executives in decades. On September 5, a record crowd of 116,000 filed into the Worlds Fair to watch McKinley give a speech. That same evening, the Expo put on a patriotic fireworks display that culminated with a burst of pyrotechnics that spelled out the words, Welcome President McKinley, Chief of our Nation and Our Empire.
McKinleys final scheduled appearance at the Expo began the following day, September 6, when he attended a public meet-and-greet at a theater called the Temple of Music. The affable commander in chief rarely missed an opportunity to meet his constituents, but this particular event had worried his staff members, some of whom feared that an assassin might take the opportunity to strike. The presidents personal secretary, George B. Cortelyou, had even tried to cancel the reception on two separate occasions. Both times, McKinley had insisted that it remain on the schedule.
Despite the sweltering late-summer heat, a long line of people waited outside the Temple of Music when the reception began at 4 p.m. As the theaters organist played a Bach sonata, the visitors slowly filed inside, many of them eager for a chance to meet the president and shake his hand. Near the front of the line stood 28-year-old Leon Czolgosz, a shy and brooding former steel worker. An avowed anarchist, Czolgosz had arrived in Buffalo only a few days earlier and purchased a .32 caliber Iver Johnson revolverthe same type of weapon that another anarchist had used to assassinate the Italian King Umberto I the previous summer. He now waited with the gun wrapped in a white handkerchief and concealed inside his jacket pocket. It was in my heart; there was no escape for me, Czolgosz later said. All those people seemed bowing to the great ruler. I made up my mind to kill that ruler.
McKinleys anxious staff had added police and soldiers to his usual complement of Secret Service agents, but the security detail took little notice of Czolgosz as he strode up to the president at around 4:07 p.m. When McKinley smiled and extended his hand, Czolgosz raised his pistolstill wrapped in its white handkerchiefand fired two shots at point blank range.
Just a few minutes after the shooting, McKinley was carried from the Temple of Music and taken to the Pan-American Expositions hospital. The only qualified doctor that could be found was a gynecologist, but the president was nevertheless rushed into the operating theater for emergency surgery. One of the bullets appeared to have ricocheted off one of McKinleys suit buttons and hit his sternum, causing only minor damage. The other had struck his abdomen and passed clean through his stomach. The surgeon managed to suture the stomach wounds and stop the bleeding, but he was unable to locate the bullet, which he assumed was lodged somewhere in the presidents back. By the time of McKinleys death, Leon Czolgosz had already spent several days in a Buffalo jail cell undergoing interrogation by police. The Michigan native said he had pulled the trigger out of a desire to contribute to the anarchist cause. I dont believe in the Republican form of government, and I dont believe we should have any rulers, he said in his confession. It is right to kill them. Czolgosz claimed that he had stalked McKinley across Buffalo for two days and had nearly shot him during his arrival at the train station and his September 5 speech at the fairgrounds. He was also adamant that he had acted alone. I killed President McKinley because I done my duty, he declared. Czolgosz was only nominally connected to the American anarchist movementcertain groups had even suspected him of being a police spybut his confession led to a sweeping roundup of political radicals. In Chicago, a dozen staff members from the anarchist newspaper Free Society were arrested. On September 10, police also picked up the anarchist firebrand Emma Goldman, whose speeches Czolgosz had cited as a key influence in his decision to assassinate McKinley. Goldman and the others were all eventually released, but justice came swiftly for Czolgosz. His murder trial began on September 23a little more than a week after McKinleys demiseand he was found guilty and sentenced to death just three days later. On October 29, 1901, Czolgosz was executed by the electric chair at New Yorks Auburn Prison. I killed the president for the good of the laboring people, the good people, he said in the moments before the sentence was carried out. I am not sorry for my crime. While William McKinley was eventually overshadowed by his more famous successor, Theodore Roosevelt, his assassination prompted a worldwide outpouring of grief. In Europe, the British King Edward VII and other monarchs declared national periods of mourning for the fallen president. A sea of sympathizers later came to view McKinleys body as it lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda on September 17, and whole cities ground to a halt to pay their respects as his funeral train passed by on its way to his final resting place in Canton, Ohio. In 1907, the presidents remains were moved to a sprawling tomb complex featuring a domed mausoleum. The memorial includes a bronze statue that depicts McKinley giving his final speech at the Pan-American Exposition on September 5, 1901the day before his fateful meeting with Leon Czolgosz.
Even with the .32 caliber slug still inside him, McKinley seemed to be on the mend in the days after the shooting. Doctors gave enthusiastic updates on his condition as he convalesced in the Expos presidents home, and newspapers reported that he was awake, alert and even reading the newspaper. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was so pleased with McKinleys progress that he took off on a camping trip in the Adirondack Mountains. You may say that I am absolutely sure the president will recover, he told reporters. By September 13, however, McKinleys condition had become increasingly desperate. Gangrene had formed on the walls of the presidents stomach and brought on a severe case of blood poisoning. In a matter of hours, he grew weak and began losing consciousness. At 2:15 a.m. on September 14, he died with his wife Ida by his side.