- Linguistic evidence indicates that Cushitic languages were spoken in Lower Nubia, an ancient region which straddles present day Southern Egypt and part of Northern Sudan, and that Nilo-Saharan languages were spoken in Upper Nubia to the south (by the peoples of the Kerma culture), with North Eastern Sudanic languages from Upper Nubia later replacing the Cushitic languages of Lower Nubia.
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Nov 21, 2019 · He mentions the relationship between the modern Beja language and the ancient Cushitic Blemmyan language which dominated Lower Nubia: "The Blemmyan language is so close to modern Beja that it is probably nothing else than an early dialect of the same language."  In Upper Egypt and Northern Lower Nubia was present a series of cultures, the Badarian, Amratian, Gerzean, A-Group, B-Group, and C-Group.
Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century AD. It is ancestral to modern-day Nobiin and closely related to Dongolawi and Kenzi. It was used throughout the kingdom of Makuria, including the eparchy of Nobatia.
Lower Nubia has been called "the corridor to Africa", where there was contact and cultural exchange between Nubians, Egyptians, Greeks, Assyrians, Romans, and Arabs. Lower Nubia was also where the Kingdom of Meroe flourished. The languages spoken by modern Nubians are based on ancient Sudanic dialects.
But Coptic was also commonly used as a commercial language and Shinnie (1974) suggested that it may well have been the lingua franca of Lower Nubia al least. In some ostraca from Debeira West .(600-1100 AD), the name of Mohammed appears several time written in Coptic letters.
- Mokhtar Khalil, Catherine Miller
The name Nubia is derived from the Noba people: nomads who settled the area in fourth-century AD following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language that is ancestral to Old Nubian, which was mostly used in religious texts dating from the eighth and fifteenth centuries.
Despite the Arab conquest of Egypt and the ensuing Islamisation, the people along the Nile in Lower Nubia retained their original language, known as Nubian, or Nobiin for linguists. Closely related to Nobiin is Dongolawi, spoken up the river around Dongola in present day Sudan.
• the Mahas, which is spoken in the Central area of Nubia (from Korosko to Dongola); • the Kenzi - Dongolawi group, which is split into two dialects: Kenzi spoken in Northern Nubia and Dongolawi spoken in Southem Nubia, 7 Nubian belongs to the Nilo-Saharan family (Eastern Sudanic branch according to
Julien Cooper (2017) also suggests that Nilo-Saharan languages of the Eastern Sudanic branch were spoken by the people of Kerma, as well as those further south along the Nile, to the west, and those of Saï (an island to the north of Kerma), but that Afro-Asiatic (most likely Cushitic) languages were spoken by other peoples in Lower Nubia (such as the Medjay and the C-Group culture) living in Nubian regions north of Saï toward Egypt and those southeast of the Nile in Punt in the Eastern ...