Texan victory, Treaties of Velasco (1836) Creation of the Republic of Texas (1836) Mexican invasions of Texas (1842) Annexation of Texas by the United States of America (1845); Outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) First Franco–Mexican War. (1838–1839) also known as the Pastry War. Mexico.ConflictCombatant 1Combatant 2ResultsMexican War of Independence ...Mexico Mexican Insurgents European ...Spain Spanish Royalists Mexican ...Victory First Mexican Empire gains ...Long Expedition (1819)First Mexican Empire Army of the Three ...Victory Rebels defeated and captured ...Texas–Indian Wars (1820–1875)First Mexican Empire Spain United States ...Victory Extinction of many tribes in ...First Mexican Empire (1821–1822) ...Victory Spain recognizes the independence ...
- The Rise of the Aztecs. The Aztecs were one of several peoples inhabiting Central Mexico when they embarked on a series of conquests and subjugations that put them at the center of their own Empire.
- The Conquest (1519—1522) In 1519, Hernán Cortés and 600 ruthless conquistadors marched on Mexico City, picking up native allies along the way who were willing to fight the much-loathed Aztecs.
- Independence from Spain (1810—1821) On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo addressed his flock in the town of Dolores, telling them that the time had come to kick out the Spanish usurpers.
- The Loss of Texas (1835—1836) Toward the end of the colonial period, Spain began allowing English-speaking settlers from the United States into Texas. Early Mexican governments continued to allow the settlements and before long, English-speaking Americans greatly outnumbered Spanish-speaking Mexicans in the territory.
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- The Independence
- Illustrated Priest
- War of The Reformation
- French Invasion
- The Cristiada
- The Heritage
When the War of Independence occurred, at the beginning of the 19th century, the Viceroyalty of New Spain lived almost 300 years of the period known as La Colonia. In the territory of what is now Mexico there was a growing disagreement among the Creoles, who were the majority of the population in the large cities, towards the Spanish peninsular. An environment that also prevailed within the Catholic church, recalls the specialist in religions Bernardo Barranco. “Independence is presented as a great struggle, but at the same time they are also inter-church struggles,” he explains to BBC Mundo. “There was what was called the lower clergy or an enlightened clergy in the face of the hegemony of the imperial clergy, married to the Spanish Crown and who held the springs of authority.” 1. Criollos, mestizos, mulatos or saltapatrás: how the caste division arose during Spanish rule in America The enlightened clergy were priests with an additional education to religious training, and who at t...
One of them was Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, pastor in the town of Dolores, Guanajuato in the center of the country. Hidalgo joined a secret society that promoted the creation of a congress to govern the territory on behalf of King Ferdinand VII, who had been deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops. The conspiracy was discovered and on September 16, 1810 the priest gathered a crowd in Dolores and began the fight against the Viceroyalty. The Catholic hierarchy condemned the insurrection, and even excommunicated the priest. It was part of the internal differences in the Church, recalls the historian Barranco. “The Church is a conglomerate of institutions, dioceses, characters and local actors, it is not homogeneous,” he explains. At the time of Independence “the lower enlightened clergy had no control of the apparatus, but of the masses.” Hidalgo was defeated in 1811. Months later he was sentenced to death but the war for independence did not stop. Another priest, José María Morelos, too...
Beginning in 1855, a series of laws known as Reforms were enacted, which were rejected by the Catholic Church. Legislation, for example, established the obligation to sell all church property, annulled special courts for the military and priests, and established freedom of opinion and of the press. Freedom of religion and education was also established, in addition to abolishing slavery throughout the country. In fact, it involved the separation of the Church from the tasks of government, but what caused the most disagreement was the obligation to sell their properties. “It sparked the fury of the hegemonic clergy because the i Catholic hurch owned more than one third of the territory of the country, ” says the historian Barranco. The conflict deepened when the Reform Laws were included in the 1857 Constitution. At that time the President of Mexico was Benito Juárez.
The Catholic hierarchy threatened to excommunicate those who abided by the new laws while conservatives, supported by the church, ignored the Constitution. A group of soldiers rose up in arms through the so-called Tacubaya Plan, to which several governors joined. Then began a civil war that lasted three years, until 1860 when the conservatives were defeated. The confrontation, however, ruined the coffers of the Juárez government, which suspended payment of the debt with France, the United Kingdom, and Spain. In retaliation Napoleon III sent troops to invade Mexico. The decision was supported by conservatives and the church. Even in 1863 they promoted the creation of a monarchical state in Mexicoruled by Maximilian of Habsburg. The invasion was defeated in 1867. From that year on, more laws were passed that definitively separated the church from the state.
The first governments after the Mexican Revolution (1910-1915) applied severe measures to try to control religious worship in the country. President Plutarco Elías Calles, for example, issued a decree to compel all priests to register with the Ministry of the Interior to exercise their ministry. It was not just an administrative action, explains Jean Meyer, one of the historians who has most documented this period. “In 1925 the government tried to form a schismatic church, a Catholic, Apostolic and Mexican church by severing relations with the Vatican,” heexplains. The Catholic hierarchy tried to stop the presidential decree in court but without success. In 1926, when the law began to apply, the church suspended public worship. In response, the authorities closed all the temples with the argument of making an inventory, since the precincts are legally national heritage. “In many places people rioted or filled temples to prevent their closure and blood began to flow,” recalls Jean Me...
This period is known as the Cristero War because those who faced the Army did so in the name of the Catholic religion. His battle cry was “Long live Christ the King”. The hostilities ended in 1929 after several years of negotiations where the embassies of Spain and the United States even participated, for example. There were no winners, says Jean Meyer. “It was a very difficult situation, it was like a draw.” The Cristeros “did not have enough strength to overthrow the government and the Army was unable to defeat the guerrillas.” One of the central reasons for ending the conflict was the high number of victims. More than 250,000 people died in the Cristiada, but of these, about 80,000 were fighters,says Jean Meyer. The rest were peasants from the lands where the battles were fought. For this reason, says the CIDE teacher, the Cristero War is one of the most violent moments in the history of Mexico. The influence of that period still remains in some sectors of the country, especially...
- The Battle of Palo Alto: May 8, 1846. The first major battle of the Mexican-American War took place at Palo Alto, not far from the US/Mexico border in Texas.
- The Battle of Resaca de la Palma: May 9, 1846. The next day, Arista would try again. This time, he laid an ambush along a creekbed with a great deal of dense vegetation: he hoped the limited visibility would limit the effectiveness of the American artillery.
- The Battle of Monterrey: September 21-24, 1846. General Taylor continued his slow march into the Mexican north. Meanwhile, Mexican General Pedro de Ampudia had heavily fortified the city of Monterrey in anticipation of a siege.
- The Battle of Buena Vista: February 22-23, 1847. After Monterrey, Taylor pushed southwards, making it as far as a little bit south of Saltillo. Here he paused because many of his troops were to be reassigned to a planned separate invasion of Mexico from the Gulf of Mexico.
Albuquerque Journal, N.M. via Yahoo
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This is a list of wars and rebellions involving the United States of America. Currently, there are 93 wars on this list, 4 of which are ongoing. The definition of what a war is may be found here.ConflictCombatant 1Combatant 2Result for the United States and its ...First Barbary War (1801–1805) Part of the ...United States Sweden Sicily Malta ...Tripolitania MoroccoUS-allied victoryTecumseh's War (1811) Part of the ...Tecumseh's Confederacy List Shawnee Red ...US victoryWar of 1812 (1812–1815) Location: Eastern ...United States Choctaw Nation Cherokee ...United Kingdom British North America The ...Inconclusive/Other Result Treaty of Ghent ...Creek War (1813–1814) Part of the ...United States Lower Creeks Cherokee ...US-allied victory Treaty of Fort Jackson
Furthermore, what did Mexico do during the Civil War? Mexican -American soldiers fighting off a Union General at the Battle of Valverde in 1862. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, there were tens of thousands of Mexican Americans living in California, Texas and the New Mexico territory; all former parts of Mexico that the U.S. had claimed in ...