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    • Scotland during the Roman Empire - Wikipedia
      • In the Roman imperial period, the island of Great Britain north of the River Forth was known as Caledonia, while the island itself was known as Britannia, the name also given to the Roman province roughly consisting of modern England and Wales and which replaced the earlier Ancient Greek designation as Albion.
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland_during_the_Roman_Empire#:~:text=In the Roman imperial period, the island of,replaced the earlier Ancient Greek designation as Albion.
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    What is the Roman name for England?

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  2. Roman Britain | History, Facts, & Map | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/place/Roman-Britain

    Roman Britain, Latin Britannia, area of the island of Great Britain that was under Roman rule from the conquest of Claudius in 43 ce to the withdrawal of imperial authority by Honorius in 410 ce. ancient Britain Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

  3. Ancient Roman map of Britain plots ... - Daily Mail Online

    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2622167

    May 07, 2014 · Roman's eye view of Britain: Map of British Isles shows ancient scholars didn't know East Anglia existed and Scotland was plotted into North Sea The atlas is interpretation of works of Roman ...

    • Jill Reilly
  4. BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Native Tribes of ...

    www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/british_prehistory/...

    This map shows the approximate location of the major tribes who lived in Britain at the time of the Roman Conquest of Britain in the First Century AD. The sole source for the existence and ...

  5. Britain History 750 CE - TimeMaps

    www.timemaps.com/history/britain-750ad

    To what extent this religion had survived from Roman times is a matter for debate. What is clear is that the Irish were converted to the new religion in the fifth century, and from the sixth century they began sending missionaries to Scotland (where an Irish tribe, the Scotti, had established a kingdom) and northern England.

  6. Roman Roads in Britain | Definitive Guide - Odyssey Traveller

    www.odysseytraveller.com/articles/roman-roads...

    A map of Watling Street overlaid on the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica map of Roman Britain. Map by LlywelynII/Wikimedia Commons. It was one of the greatest roads in Britain in Roman and post-Roman times, running from Dover to London, and northwest via St. Albans (Verulamium) to Wroxeter. Watling Street would later have a monument, large enough ...

    • Odyssey Info
  7. Anglo-Saxon Britain - The History Files

    historyfiles.co.uk/FeaturesBritain/England...

    Sussex had no natural administrative centre in Roman times. It was probably administered from Chichester on its western edge. The defence of Sussex in late Roman times was based on the shore fort at Pevensey, called Andredecaester in the chronicle.

  8. The Roman Empire, explained in 40 maps - Vox

    www.vox.com/world/2018/6/19/17469176/roman...
    • The Rise of Rome
    • Rome’s Military
    • The Republic Becomes An Empire
    • The Lost City of Pompeii
    • The Culture of Rome
    • Roman Britain and The Roman Economy
    • The Decline of Rome
    • Rome’s Legacy

    5) Italy before Roman conquest

    In its early years, the Romans shared Italy with several other peoples. The dominant power in the neighborhood of Rome was the Etruscans. We don’t know very much about these people, in part because we haven’t figured out how to read their distinctive language. But the evidence suggests that Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings until the Romans revolted and established a republic — an event that is traditionally dated to 509 BC. East of Rome were other tribes speaking languages related to the Roma...

    6) Rome conquers Italy

    Rome went from being one of many city-states in 340 BC to being master of the entire peninsula by 264. The conquest occurred in three phases. In 340, Rome came into conflict with its former allies, the neighboring Latins, and subdued them by 338. Beginning in 326, Rome fought the Samnites to the East, a conflict that would continue sporadically until Roman victory in 282. Rome also fought sporadic battles with Etruscans and Gauls to its North during this period. Rome then turned its attention...

    7) The first war with Carthage

    Firm control over Italy made Rome one of the Mediterranean’s major powers. The Romans began to come into conflict with another rising power located just across the water: Carthage. Located in North Africa near modern-day Tunis, Carthage was the capital of a seafaring empire, shown here in red, that dominated commerce in the Western Mediterranean. Rome fought three conflicts with Carthage, known as the Punic Wars, between 264 and 146 BC. The first conflict occurred after Carthage intervened in...

    9) Rome’s powerful maniple formation

    In the early years of the republic, the Roman infantry used a version of the Greek phalanx. In this formation, soldiers stand shoulder to shoulder in a tightly packed formation that can be more than a dozen soldiers deep. Soldiers in the front were protected by a wall of large shields, and they tried to reach around their shields with long spears to stab the enemy. While this formation worked well on level ground, the Romans found it was too brittle for the hilly terrain where they did much o...

    10) The changing culture of the Roman army

    Between 200 BC and 14 AD, Rome conquered most of Western Europe, Greece and the Balkans, the Middle East, and North Africa. One result was profound changes to Rome’s military. Previously, military service had been limited to Romans with property holdings, who would serve for a few seasons and then return to their farms. But in 107 BC, to cope with growing demands for military manpower, the Roman commander Marius opened the army to landless peasants and extended the length of military service....

    11) How Augustus tamed the Roman legions

    After the Marian reforms, Roman generals had to promise rewards — either booty captured abroad or land awarded to them on their return — to attract soldiers to their banners. Because commanders were responsible for making sure these promises were kept, the troops increasingly felt personal loyalty to these generals rather than abstract loyalty to the Roman state. As a result, in the late Republican period (107 BC to 27 BC), it became increasingly common for victorious commanders to march thei...

    13) Julius Caesar conquers Gaul

    In 58 BC, Julius Caesar took command of Rome’s northern frontier and set out to conquer Gaul, which corresponds roughly to modern-day France. He was following in the footsteps of other ambitious Roman politicians who had led foreign conquests as a way to bolster their reputation at home. This map shows Caesar’s exploits, which took almost a decade and brought him to almost every part of modern-day France. Caesar wrote an account of this campaign that, remarkably, still survives today. While h...

    14) Caesar wins the civil war

    The forces opposing Caesar in the civil war were led by Pompey, a former political ally of Caesar who had once enjoyed a string of military victories in the East. This map shows Caesar’s movements as he defeated Pompey and then dealt with Pompey’s allies. Pompey initially fled to the east; Caesar consolidated control of Spain and Italy before following him. The decisive battle came on August 10, 48 BC, when Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Parsalus, in the north of modern-day Greece. P...

    15) Julius Caesar is assassinated

    Julius Caesar wasn’t the first Roman military commander to march on the capital and take it by force, but he was the first one who didn’t even pretend that he was preserving the constitutional structure of the old republic. He had himself declared dictator for life and flirted with kingship. This ran afoul of a deep taboo in Roman culture. After all, Rome’s founding legend was about the citizens of Rome rising up to depose a despotic king. So on March 15, 44 BC, in perhaps the most famous mur...

    17) The eruption of Mount Vesuvius

    One of our richest sources of information about ancient Rome comes from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. It destroyed several Roman towns, most notably Pompeii and Herculaneum. The existence of these towns was forgotten for many centuries, but the thick layer of ash deposited by the eruption preserved them for modern archeologists. This has given us information about daily life in a Roman town that would have been difficult to obtain from other sources. Inscriptions, graffiti, and fre...

    18) The excavation of Pompeii

    The site of Pompeii was first rediscovered in 1599, but only a few artifacts were uncovered before interest in the site waned. Excavation began in earnest after the site was discovered a second time in 1748, and has continued to the present day. This map shows archaeologists’ progress. Some areas of the town have yet to be explored due to restrictions imposed by the authorities. In addition to archaeological teams, the site is visited by millions of tourists each year.

    19) The erotic artwork of Pompeii

    There is a surprising amount of erotic artwork on the walls of Pompeiian buildings, like this painting from a bedroom in the home of a wealthy Roman aristocrat. Similar artwork was found in buildings that archeologists believe were brothels. Prostitution in the Roman empire was legal and widespread. Paintings in Pompeii suggest that Romans enjoyed lively and varied sex lives, with illustrations of cunnilingus and sex with multiple partners. Sex was a topic of political controversy in ancient...

    22) The journey of Aeneas

    Virgil, who lived from 70 BC to 19 BC, was one of ancient Rome’s greatest poets. And his epic poem The Aeneid became one of the most important works of Roman literature. It focuses on Aeneas, a Trojan who played a minor role in the Greek poem The Iliad. After the fall of Troy, Aeneas leads a group of surviving Trojans around the Mediterranean looking for a new home. This map shows Aeneas’s journey, with stops in Greece, Sicily, and Carthage before he finally made his way to the Italian penins...

    23) Ancient Rome was a slave society

    Slavery was deeply woven into the fabric of Roman society. There are several ways that people in Roman society could fall into slavery. When the Romans prevailed on the battlefield, they would often take their defeated enemies captive and sell them into slavery. People could also become slaves due to failure to pay debts or as a punishment for crime. Roman slavery differed from American slavery in some important respects. Roman slaves could be of any race. And while American slaves generally...

    24) Herod the Great, king of the Jews and Roman client

    As Rome expanded, the traditional homeland of the Jewish people at the eastern end of the Mediterranean came under Roman control. Roman troops first invaded the area under Pompey in 63 BC, and after 40 BC it was ruled as a Roman client state (shown here in green) by King Herod. Not long after Herod died, the Romans created the province of Judea, which was under Roman control for centuries thereafter. The Jews had an uneasy place in the Roman Empire. Romans were suspicious of people who insist...

    26) Roman conquest of Britain

    Throughout the classical period, Britain was at the fringes of civilization. Caesar invaded in 55 BC, but didn’t establish a permanent Roman presence on the island. Conquest of Britain began in earnest under the emperor Claudius in 43 AD. Over the next four decades, Roman troops explored the entire island, including the northernmost parts of Scotland. But the Romans only conquered an area roughly corresponding to modern-day England and Wales. The Romans would govern this territory until 410,...

    27) Hadrian’s Wall

    Hadrian, who ruled from 117 to 138 AD, was one of Rome’s most interesting emperors. Most of his predecessors had sought glory by conquering new territory, steadily expanding the size of the empire. Hadrian had a different vision. He believed the empire was becoming overextended militarily, and immediately upon taking office he focused on consolidating Roman control of the territories that had already been conquered. He withdrew from a few Eastern territories conquered by his predecessor, Traj...

    28) Where Roman coins have been found in Britain

    Protected behind Hadrian’s Wall, Roman Britain flourished. The island’s economy became more specialized and more integrated with the continent. The Roman empire provided its subjects with a reliable and standardized system of currency. Uniform money brings major economic benefits because cash transactions are a lot more efficient than those done by barter. This map, drawn from a databaseof amateur archeological finds, shows where Roman coins were found between 1997 and 2010. The fact that coi...

    30) The third century AD was a bad time to be a Roman emperor

    For the first two centuries after Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, the Roman Empire experienced a period of unprecedented political stability and economic prosperity. But the situation deteriorated rapidly in the third century AD. Between 235 and 285, Rome had more than 20 emperors, and as this map shows, most died violent deaths. Some were murdered by their own armies. Others died in civil wars against rival claimants to the throne. One died in battle against foreign foe; another was captur...

    31) Constantine takes power and Christianizes the empire

    Diocletian set up an imperial structure called a “tetrarchy,” in which power was shared among four emperors. He wanted to provide more localized leadership for an empire that had become too sprawling and complex for any one man to manage. But after Diocletian’s death in 311 AD, the tetrarchy became a bloody tournament bracket for choosing Rome’s next emperor. The winner was Constantine, who made some profound changes to the empire after he became Rome’s sole emperor in 324. He created a new i...

    32) The empire is divided between East and West

    Constantine ruled over a unified Roman empire, but this would be increasingly rare. Upon Constantine’s death in 337, the empire was divided among Constantine’s three sons, who quickly began fighting among themselves. This cycle would repeat itself several times over the next half-century. It became clear that the empire was too big for any one man to rule. The last emperor to rule a united empire, Theodosius, died in 395. This map shows the result: an empire permanently divided between east a...

    36) The barbarian kingdoms of Europe in 526

    This map looks dramatically different from the map of the Western Roman Empire as it existed a few decades earlier. But it’s important not to overstate the extent of the change. Western Europe was populated by largely the same ethnic groups in 526 as they had been a century earlier. Long before it finally collapsed, manpower shortages had forced the empire to incorporate barbarian peoples into the legions. So the barbarian tribes who carved up the old empire — the Franks, Visigoths, Ostrogoth...

    37) The East becomes the Byzantine Empire

    Historians generally refer to the Eastern Roman Empire after 476 as the Byzantine Empire. But this is an arbitrary distinction invented for the convenience of historians; it wouldn’t have made sense to people living in Constantinople, the Eastern Capital, at the time. People in the Byzantine Empire continued to think of themselves as Romans, and their empire as the Roman Empire, for centuries after 476. In 527, the Emperor Justinian took power in the Byzantine Empire and began a campaign to r...

    38) The Holy Roman Empire

    In 800 AD, Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, persuaded Pope Leo III to name him emperor, a title that hadn’t been held in the West in three centuries. Charlemagne’s successors built what came to be known as the Holy Roman Empire. Between 962 and 1806, it would control most of modern-day Germany and portions of modern-day France, Italy, and Central Europe. In practice, the Holy Roman Empire didn’t have very much to do with the original Roman Empire. The empire was ruled by Germans rather th...

  9. What was England called before it was England? - Quora

    www.quora.com/What-was-England-called-before-it...

    May 27, 2019 · Orginally Answered: What was England called before it was called England? How far back do you want to go? Immediately preceding ‘England’ as in the Kingdom founded and ruled by Athelstan from 927 the territory now called England was divided into W...

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