Yahoo Web Search

  1. Wartime and Post-war Economies (The Netherlands ...

    encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net › article
    • Introduction↑
    • Dutch Openness and Dependency↑
    • Neutrality↑
    • Isolation↑
    • Production↑
    • New Production↑
    • Structural Change↑
    • Post-War Consequences↑
    • Conclusion↑

    At least until 1940, when German troops attacked Western Europe once again, Berlin’s 1914 decision to ignore Belgium’s neutrality and honour that of its similarly small northern neighbour, had massive consequences for both countries. In Belgium it is generally believed that the Netherlands profited from the war, while many Dutch are barely aware of the impact of the First World War. Indeed, the Dutch economy did benefit from the war. Nonetheless, during the last years of the conflict, Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands (1880-1962) often had to rush along a crowd of protesters crying out, “Hunger, Hunger!”The topic of this paper is Dutch wartime economic development and its consequences. It questions how the Netherlands, whose economy was more open than any other, improved its position.

    By 1885, the 19th century’s canalization of the Rhine was almost complete. Over the next thirty years, the scale of steam-tugged trains of barges increased constantly. Consequently, freight rates dropped 80 percent while rail tariffs remained stable. This suited perfectly the increasing demand for transport in the industrial heart of Western Europe, the Ruhr. There, just across the border from the Netherlands, technical developments demanded ever more ore, coal, and foodstuffs. As transport via Rhine barges was the cheapest option, the port at the Rhine estuary, Rotterdam, became essential for German industry. In the years before 1914, almost a quarter of all German trade crossed the German-Dutch border via the Rhine and a statistically significant relationship developed between barge compared with rail tariffs and the Rhine’s share in total transport. The same is true for Rhine transportand transhipment in Rotterdam. Dependence was strengthened as almost all coal used in the Nether...

    As a substantial part of German trade went through the Netherlands, in 1909, after the Declaration of London was signed, Helmuth von Moltke (1848-1916), Chief of the German General Staff, decided to keep the Dutch out of any European conflict. According to the Declaration, in times of war trade would go on. Neutral ships only had to hand over their cargo if it was explicitly directed to inimical armed forces. As it was allowed neither to block a neutral port, nor to intercept vessels carrying cargo not explicitly sent to inimical forces, Germany could rely on the continuation of Dutch transit. The Act of Mannheim of 1868 assured free Rhine navigation. Therefore, goods reaching Rotterdam could continue on to Germany. Already in 1909, Moltke wrote that after a German attack on France through Belgium, Britain would use the violation of Belgium’s neutrality as an argument to enter a war. Hence, without losing trustworthiness, London could not attack another small country. Therefore, if...

    From August 1914, the Dutch were confronted with huge economic problems. Around 9 percent of the labour force had been sent to the army, foreign supply was cut off, and financial markets panicked. However, the informal September 1914 Dutch-German agreement on coal supply soon created stability and before the end of 1914 import substitution and governmental orders caused some recovery. Stability continued in 1915, although supply remained a problem as allied attempts to isolate Germany impacted the Dutch. Since the 1930s, economists have thought in terms of national economies. In fact, there was no Dutch economy. A substantial part of Dutch economic activity was adding value to imports that were exported again.When in 1914 the British Commercial Secretary was commissioned “to prevent Dutch supplies from reaching Germany,” this threatened transit, and, by isolating Dutch economic activities from its hinterland, broke up the structure of a regional north-western European economy. A Dut...

    As mentioned above, the NOT’s policy meant that industry could continue. According to Van der Bie’s statistical reconstruction (see Table 1), however, the economic setback was severe. In 1914 industrial production decreased over 5 percent and stabilized in 1915. Employment also remained low initially, but grew in 1916. According to the Director-General of Labour-Inspection, industry boomed that year: Manufacturing enjoyed an unprecedented prosperity, and it had been many years since such enormous sums of money had been invested in industrial enterprises. Based on statistical analysis, H.J. de Jong published new data on industrial development in 1999. He argues that by 1916 industrial production grew as high prices, hardly offset by rising costs, resulted in unprecedented profits. Only when Germany introduced the unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917 and the allies intensified their blockade, did supply collapse. Rising employment indicates that production was higher than s...

    Cutting off imports generated opportunities. Competition disappeared not just because of the blockade, but also because the belligerents needed their goods at home. Dutch companies thus obtained opportunities to gain better positions in post-war competition. When the economic struggle reached its peak in 1917 nothing was left for non-belligerents. It became clear that the lack of a major coal industry, blast furnaces, adequate food production for home consumption etc. made the country vulnerable. When the 1914 agreement on coal expired in 1917, Berlin blackmailed the Dutch to provide a loan to the Reich at 55 guilders per metric ton on top of the base price. Supplies of iron, steel, and foodstuffs were also difficult to obtain. Thus, the government took responsibility or supported private initiatives. Investments in the state mines made the Netherlands almost self-sufficient in terms of coal before the next war. The Hague supported the creation of blast furnaces and initiated the dr...

    After 1914, industrial production recovered. 1916 was a year of high employment. Due to high demand and limited supply, prices increased while wages stagnated. Thus, between 1913 and 1917 real labour costs declined by 17 percent, yielding high profits. The increase in competitiveness is partly explained by the growth of capital stock by 4.6 percent on average between 1913 and 1921.However, in 1917 and 1918, the collapse of trade caused a setback. Exceptions were sectors promoted to improve economic independence such as steel, mining, or public utilities. Since the setback was war-related and a quick end of hostilities expected, labour-hoarding became common in order to prepare for post-war production. In industrial sectors, the war led to expansion, cooperation, and new companies producing goods that were previously imported. Thus between 1909 and 1920, total employment increased 31 percent, mainly in industry and to a lesser extent in services. The war strengthened the development...

    When the armistice was signed, Dutch industry was ready to supply the continent. However, the 1918 truce did not immediately result in orders. Many expected lower prices and waited. 1919 brought improvement to some industries, but uncertainty remained. Compared to the war years, improvements were undeniable, but for some industries developments were disappointing. Only in 1920 did industry grow abruptly, but the low exchange rate of several currencies, primarily the German mark, undermined Dutch competitiveness. Currency problems even plunged some sectors into depression and there were complaints about imports below cost.In addition, the slump in shipping resulted in a virtual shutdown of shipbuilding. Nonetheless, after the post-war problems were overcome, modernization bore fruit. This did not compensate for the collapse of the first wave of globalization. However, due to its increased competitiveness the Netherlands could partly offset the repercussions with a larger share in wor...

    The blockade and submarine warfare were much more than a barrier to trade. World War I crushed the transnational northwest European economic region. Dutch businesses had to survive in a completely different setting. From 1915 growing domestic demand resulted in spontaneous import substitution, often involving horizontal and vertical integration. A huge increase of scale resulted. It was possible to finance this as prices rose and wages remained stable. Until 1917 real wages fell and profitability significantly improved. As companies had to take post-war competition into account, the reduction in labour costs did not result in low productivity. Instead, they invested in expansion and modernization, especially machinery. In 1917-18, when the inflow of overseas products collapsed, the dependence on German cartels became clear and its dangers manifest. Government and industry now jointly initiated the national production of strategic commodities. State mines expanded and steps were take...

  2. History of the Netherlands - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_the_Netherlands

    The Netherlands gained independence from Spain as a result of the Eighty Years' War, during which the Dutch Republic was founded. As the Netherlands was a republic, it was largely governed by an aristocracy of city-merchants called the regents, rather than by a king. Every city and province had its own government and laws, and a large degree of ...

  3. People also ask

    What was the cost to the Netherlands during World War 1?

    How did Germany trade with the Netherlands before 1914?

    Where can I find Dutch 1 cent coins?

    Who was executed in the Netherlands during World War 1?

  4. 1917 Netherlands Wilhelmina I Silver 25 Cents - Silveragecoins

    www.silveragecoins.com › en › details

    1917 Netherlands Wilhelmina I Silver 25 Cents. In 1817, the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilder. The remaining denominations were introduced in 1818. These were copper ½ cent, silver 5, 10 and 25 cents, ½ and 1 guilder, and gold 10 guilder. In 1826, gold 5 guilder coins were introduced.

    • KM# 146
    • Wilhelmina I
    • 25 Cents
    • Netherlands Wilhelmina I Silver 25 Cents
  5. The Netherlands - 1914-1918-online

    encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net › article › the
    • Introduction↑
    • A Small, Neutral Country↑
    • Military Matters↑
    • Balanced Trade↑
    • Making Sense of The War↑
    • War’S End↑
    • Conclusion↑

    The First World War has never had a major place in Dutch historiography. Dutch neutralityand the overwhelming influence of the Second World War on the country may explain this state of affairs. Moreover, the studies that were written were in Dutch, so their international impact remained limited. Still, we can discern two periods in which the war years of 1914-1918 figure with some prominence: the period following the end of the War, and more recent times since the 1990s. Dutch academics, historians and jurists in particular, have analysed and interpreted the war since the day it began in many newspapers and journals. They were especially interested in the causes of the war, in international law and in the way the war affected their own country, both internally and in its international position. After the war, when the first memoirs and documents were published in the former belligerent countries, some Dutch historians came to the fore internationally. Foremost among them was Nicolas...

    Independent, Political, and Armed Neutrality↑

    In August 1914 the Netherlands had been a neutral country for more than sixty years. After the short-lived union with Belgium(1815-1831) the Dutch had had to rethink their position in Europe and the world at large. As a small European country with sizable colonial possessions, most notably the Dutch East Indies/Indonesia, the Netherlands had more to lose than to gain in any future European conflict. The Netherlands opted for an independent, political and armed neutrality. Independent in that,...

    Prepared for the Worst↑

    The German unification of 1871 hardened the Dutch in their belief that neutrality was the best means of staying detached from European power politics. Dutch military planners realized that a new war between Franceand Germany was more than likely, but after studying the possible lines of attack they concluded that though in such an event Belgian neutrality would almost certainly be violated, Dutch neutrality stood a good chance of being respected. Consecutive Dutch governments took great pains...

    Neutral Credentials↑

    The Dutch also realized that war plans were devised in peacetime and that there was therefore no time to lose in establishing the nation’s neutral credentials. In the years leading up to the First World War Dutch politicians and diplomats worked hard to present the Netherlands as the reliable neutral. "Friendship with all, alliances with none", became the nation’s neutrality creed, and the Dutch studiously avoided choosing sides in any conflict involving European powers. The Boer War (1899-19...

    Army Organisation↑

    The primary task of the armed forces (army and navy) was to discourage any belligerent power from incorporating Dutch territory in its military operations or in a worst-case scenario, to try to occupy the Netherlands. Also, theoretically the Dutch army could, in case the country got involved in a war, ally itself with one of the warring parties; at least this was an option that had some advocates in higher military circles. After the Franco-German War the Dutch military establishment kept a c...

    Mobilisation↑

    The Dutch mobilization of army and navy on 1 August was remarkable for both the timing and its smooth execution. Already on 25 July, the day Serbia mobilized, a Dutch General Staff officer had received a telegram from a former Dutch officer in Cologne warning him that war threatened. At the time the Dutch Chief of the General Staff, Lieutenant-General C.J. Snijders (1852-1939)was still on holiday, but he returned immediately. Snijders had worked on the Dutch mobilisation plans since 1910, bas...

    Mobilisation Maintained↑

    In October 1914 the German army besieged the Fortress Antwerp. After heavy bombardments, the Belgian army fled the city. Some 30,000 Belgian soldiers sought refuge in the Netherlands and were interned for the duration of the war. Over 700,000 Flemish civilians also fled to the north. They were housed all over the Netherlands and most returned home after a few weeks. Several tens of thousands Belgian refugeesstayed in the Netherlands during the entire war, mostly in specially erected refugee c...

    Economic Neutrality↑

    Pre-war Dutch neutrality seemed justified not only from a political and military, but also from an economic standpoint. From the 1870s onwards, the Netherlands had quickly developed into an open economy, heavily dependent on foreign trade. Dutch agricultural produce, for example, found its way mainly to German and British markets. Rotterdam had become a major European trading hub, connecting the German industrial heartland with its overseas trading partners. The other major Dutch port, Amster...

    Netherlands Oversea Trust Company↑

    So, Cort van der Linden and his ministers found themselves caught between the devil and the deep blue sea. Giving in to Britain might mean war with Germany, but refusing London’s demands might cause the ruin of the Dutch economy, which could not survive without the many imports from overseas, such as grain, now classified as contraband by the Allies. On 17 August, the Minister for Agriculture, Industry and Trade Marie Willem Frederik Treub (1858-1931)warned that stocks for domestic consumptio...

    Government Intervention↑

    Despite the governments’ initial misgivings, Folkert E. Posthuma (1874-1943), who had succeeded Treub as Minister for Agriculture, Industry and Trade in November 1914, was quickly forced to make ever greater interventions in the country’s economy. At first, they were mostly geared at combating price rises. These were caused by the rapidly rising costs of transporting foodand agricultural supplies overseas to the Netherlands. In 1915, Posthuma attempted to create a subsidising scheme for cheap...

    Reporting the War↑

    During the 1907 Peace Conference it had been decided that neutral states were not responsible for the attitude and behaviour of their citizens. However, the Dutch government was determined to take no chances. In August 1914 the Dutch newspapers had been warned not to be biased in their war reporting. The press willingly complied, with one important exception. The Amsterdam-based Telegraaf, a national newspaper that had never shunned a populist approach, decided to steer a pro-Allied and incre...

    Living with War?↑

    Four years of neutrality meant that the war remained a foreign and somewhat remote affair. Men might be serving in the army, feeling miserable during the cold, wet winters and bored throughout the year, but their loved ones at home did not have to fear the arrival of the dreaded War Office telegram. For the vast majority of the Dutch population, the war was a prolonged nuisance rather than a life shattering tragedy. The total number of Dutch war fatalities is estimated to run into the hundred...

    Growing Unease↑

    By 1917 a nation-wide dissatisfaction was growing. The Dutch remained firmly in favour of their neutral status, but the government was increasingly held responsible for its practical consequences. As there was no immediate threat of war, there were calls for a partial demobilisation. The Minister for Agriculture, Trade and Industry and not the allied blockade or the German U-boot war was blamed for the poor food and fuel distribution. Many felt the minister’s policies did little to curb the p...

    Disaster strikes twice↑

    Things came to a head in March 1918, when the Americans and British requisitioned all the Dutch merchant vessels that were laid up in their ports. The Dutch parliament, papers and people were all outraged by this action, and the queen called it a "theft". The government protested vigorously, but left it at that. The danger of war flared up as Germany demanded compensation for this un-neutral leniency towards the Allies. It was Holland’s darkest hour, as the Dutch government felt it could not...

    An Aborted Revolution↑

    The liberals lost heavily in that election and the new government that took office on 9 September 1918, consisted of conservative Christian-democrats, led by Charles Ruys de Beerenbrouck (1873-1936). The new government was immediately confronted with the hectic last weeks of the war. A major fear was that the left-wing revolutionary ideals brewing in Russia and Germany might find favour with the population of urban centres, who had been hit the hardest by rising prices and could not afford to...

    Looking back of four years of neutrality, the first thing that stands out is the contrast between the reluctance of Cort van der Linden’s liberal government to adopt a more hands-on approach, even during the latter part of the war, and its successor’s willingness to do so. Cort van der Linden and his ministers attempted to delegate the twin tasks of regulating the economy and dealing with the demands made by belligerents to others. The conservative government which took office in the last months of the war, seemed better suited to the demands of the time, pushing through interventionist policies and showing a remarkable willingness to engage in bilateral bargaining with belligerent nations seemed better suited to the demands of the times. Liberalism went into decline after 1918, a process caused or at the very least greatly accelerated by the war: this European-wide phenomenon also touched the Netherlands. The change of government in the last months of the war and the Belgian annexa...

  6. Netherlands in World War I - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › The_Netherlands_in_World_War_I

    War conditions disrupted the Netherlands' food imports and caused shortages. From 3 July 1917, authorities in Amsterdam held back the potato supply until there was enough to feed the whole city. This led to a large riot and looting of stores and markets. Rioters broke into warehouses and took potatoes intended to be exported to England.

  7. 10 cents 1910-1925, Netherlands - Coin value - uCoin.net

    en.ucoin.net › coin › netherlands-10-cents-1910-1925

    Netherlands 10 cents, 1910-1925 ... XF 1918 $ 2.18 XF 1918 $ 2.34 XF 1919 $ 2.62 XF 1918 $ 2.86 VF 1917 $ 2.00 VF 1917 $ 2.00 VF 1919 $ 2.22 VF 1918 $ 2.26 VF 1918 ...

  8. 1 Cent - Wilhelmina - Netherlands – Numista

    en.numista.com › catalogue › pieces2584

    1917 Netherlands 1 Cent Coin XF World Coin Bronze #K1058 $5.69. Right Now on NumisCorner. -5%* Coin, Netherlands, Wilhelmina I, Cent, 1939, EF (40-45), Bronze, KM:152 €5.00. Right Now on eBay. Old Netherlands Coin - 1914 1 Cent - Circulated $0.99. * 5% discount on all NumisCorner items with the coupon NUMISTA.

  9. From 1917 onwards, the war is getting closer to the Netherlands. Increasingly, German U-boats and British minefields are an impediment to the merchant fleet and fishery. Since the Netherlands rely on imports from overseas, there is a shortage of important raw materials and, consequently, a decline in domestic production.

  10. Netherlands History and Timeline Overview

    www.ducksters.com › geography › country

    Netherlands Timeline. BCE. 2000 to 800 - Bronze Age peoples live in the Netherlands region. 800 to 58 - Iron Age period in which the Germanic tribes and the Celtic peoples arrived. 57 - The Roman Empire under Julius Caesar invades the southern Netherlands and takes control. Ice Skating is Popular. CE. 1 to 100 - A tribe called the Frisians have ...

  11. People also search for