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Apr 02, 2019 · The headquarters for the alliance was in France, and the first secretary general was Britain’s Lord Ismay. General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower was NATO’s first supreme commander in Europe.
Sep 24, 2019 · In the last days of June, the PEN Club, a London-based writers’ association founded for the defense of free speech and mutual understanding across cultures, had held its annual congress in Prague.
All throughout the 1930s, Adolf Hitler had had his covetous eye on the lands, people, and industry of young Czechoslovakia, a country which had only been founded just a few scant years before, when the Austrian Empire had fallen into ruins at the end of First World War. During the 1920s, Czechoslovakia had then become one of the most industrially advanced and politically progressive states in all of Europe. Hitler wanted that heavy industrial power for the German Reich, and so his expansionist plans had had Czechoslovakia as their first target of takeover since at least 1937, when he had first ordered his generals to draw up plans for a possible future military invasion. In order to set the stage for a takeover that would provoke the least amount of international outcry, Hitler staged one of the most devious pieces of political theater of the 20th century. Czechoslovakia was an ethnically diverse nation which, in addition to the majority Czech and Slovak populations, also contained within its borders large amounts of German, Polish, and Hungarian citizenes, among others. Along Czechoslovakias northern frontier was a predominantly German-speaking region known as the Sudetenland. Hitler secretly collaborated with Karl Henlein, leader of the Sudeten German Party or SDP, and by 1935 the party was being covertly funded by the German Foreign Office. The SDP did everything in its power to instigate German nationalistic sentiment among the German-speaking peoples of Czechoslovakia, and started a massive propaganda campaign which aimed to show that the German minority was being repressed by the predominantly Czech government. Feigning outrage over the supposed mistreatment of German peoples inside the borders of his southern neighbor, in September 1938 Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany or be prepared to face war. At that time, Czechoslovakia had standing mutual protection alliances with both France and the Soviet Union. However, the agreement with the USSR required that it come to Czechoslovakias defense only in the case that France did so also. The French government, in spite of its treaty agreements, had no desire to be drawn into a war with Germany, and neither did Great Britain which would have been obligated to aid France if war broke out on the continent. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, anxious to avoid war with Germany at any cost, visited Hitler at Obersalzberg on 21 September, and assured him that his aims in Czechoslovakia could be achieved peacefully. Taking advantage of the greatly weakened state of the Czechoslovak governement, Slovak Populist leader Jozef Tiso was secretly encouraged by Hitler to agitate for Slovak independence. And on 14 March, 1939, Slovak parliamentarians voted in favor of complete succession from Czechoslovakia, and Tiso pubicly pleaded with Hitler to step in and take charge of the defense of the newly emancipated Slovakia which duly became Germanys puppet state.
On September 29, 1938, Hitler agreed to receive Chamberlain, French Premier Eduoard Daladier, and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini in Munich, and the resultant Munich Agreement awarded large chunks of Czech territory to the Third Reich. It was finalized while the Czech representatives were forced to wait on a bench outside the meeting room while the fate of their country was decided without their participation in the discussions. The final result of Munich was that Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš was forced into accepting the proposal to cede the Sudetenland to Germany by 10 October, believing that Czechoslovakia had no chance of defeating Germany in an armed conflict without the help of its allies. The Soviet Union was largely ignored during this process.
Beneš had resigned the presidency of Czechoslovakia and fled into exile shortly before the occupation of the Sudetenland months before, and the new President Emil Hácha was completely out of his depth in dealing with Hitlers strong-arm tactics. Hácha requested an audience with Hitler upon the announcement of the secession of Slovakia, and during the course of many hours worth of overnight meetings, the German dictator was able to browbeat and intimidate the flustered Czech president into agreeing with the German takeover of the rump state and into its incorporatation into the German Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia in order to supposedly safeguard the peace and security of Central Europe. The agreement was signed at almost 4:00 a.m. on the morning of 15 March, and scarcely two hours later German troops began pouring over the border into Bohemia and Moravia and took possession of the country while the Czech military was commanded to step down and allow them to enter. That evening Hitler made his triumphant entry into Prague where he proclaimed his bloodless victory at Prague Castle, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist for the next 6 years.
Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles.Originally conceived as a defense against nuclear-armed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), its application has broadened to include shorter-ranged non-nuclear tactical and theater missiles.
- The First Czechs
- The Czechs in The Middle Ages
- The Czechs Under Habsburg Rule
- The Czechs in The 19th Century
- Communist Czechoslovakia
- The Czech Republic
- The Czech Republic in The 21st Century
From about 400 BC what is now the Czech Republic was inhabited by a Celtic race. The Romans called them the Boii and they gave their name to Bohemia. Then about 100 AD a Germanic people called the Marcomanni conquered the area. The Romans traded with the Marcomanni and sometimes fought with them but they never conquered this part of the world. In the sixth century a Slavic people entered what is now the Czech Republic. According to legend, a man called Cech led them. However, for centuries, they were only a collection of tribes not a single, united people. However in the 9th century a people called the Moravians from the frontier of the Czech Republic and Slovakia created an empire in Central Europe. It was called the Great Moravian Empire and it included what is now the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and parts of Germany and Poland. German missionaries began to convert the people of the empire to Christianity. Then the ruler Ratislav (846-870) asked the Byzantine emperor to send mission...
Furthermore the different tribes in what is now the Czech Republic gradually became united under the Premyslid dynasty. However, the Germans overshadowed them. In 950 Bohemia became part of the Holy Roman Empire. What was this empire? The Christian writer Augustine claimed that God created the Roman Empire for the good of mankind. He said there should be one empire led by an emperor just as there was one church led by the pope. In the early 9th century a man named Charlemagne conquered most of western and central Europe. He claimed he was the successor of the old Roman emperors (even though his empire did not include Rome). After his death his empire split into three parts. The eastern part eventually became Germany. However, the ruler of the eastern past kept the title emperor. In time his realm became known as the Holy Roman Empire. However, it soon became a patchwork quilt of states and the emperor had little power. The Czechs resisted any interference by the emperors in their do...
However in 1526 a Hapsburg became Ferdinand I. (The Habsburgs were a powerful family who ruled several European states). The Habsburgs restored strong central rule. However, Ferdinand was a Catholic. At first, he was forced to accept the Hussite Church in Bohemia but in 1546-47 he joined in a war against Protestants in Germany. Many Czechs rebelled but the rebellion failed. Afterward, many prominent Czech Protestants were executed. Furthermore, Ferdinand invited the Jesuits to Bohemia to try and convert his people to Catholicism. However, he had to tread carefully to avoid alienating his Czech subjects. His son Rudolf II was even more tolerant and privately said he was neither Catholic nor Protestant but Christian. He was also a patron of the arts and learning and under him, Czech culture flourished. However he abdicated in 1611 in favor of his brother Matthias. In 1617 Matthias named his staunchly Catholic cousin Ferdinand as his heir. The result was a rebellion by Protestant noble...
In the early 19th century Czech industry grew rapidly. The textile industry boomed. The sugar industry and an iron industry also prospered. Meanwhile, interest in Czech culture and history grew. Among the leading minds of the 19th century were Josef Dobrovsky (1753-1829) a linguist and Frantisek Palacky a historian. Furthermore, during the 19th century, the great Czech composer Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) wrote operas, concertos, and symphonies. Nationalism and the ideas of the French Revolution grew more and more important during the 19th century and in 1848 they exploded in revolution. It was ignited by a revolution in France in February, which was followed by revolutions in other parts of Europe. Alarmed by the unrest sweeping Europe the Austrian emperor at first backed down. He promised his people constitutional changes. In June a Slav Congress was held in Prague. At that time Czech radicals erected barricades in the streets of Prague. The army withdrew but used artillery to bomb...
The new state of Czechoslovakia was the only industrialized state in eastern Europe. It also proved to be the only successful democracy. Its first president was Masaryk. He resigned in 1935. During the interwar period Czechoslovakia produced the great writer Franz Kafka. Other writers were Jaroslav Hasek and Karel Capek who first used the word robot for a mechanical man in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). However the new republic was faced with the problem that it contained large national minorities. On 29 October 1918 Germans in the north and west of Bohemia declared their independence. However, the wartime allies were afraid that they would join with Austria. French and Italian troops were sent to the German areas and they were made part of Czechoslovakia again but the German minorities desire for independence spelled trouble for the future. Meanwhile after 1929 Czechoslovakia suffered from the economic depression. By 1933 industrial output fell to only 60% of its pre-...
Furthermore the Communists began taking over Czechoslovakia. Although Benes was president the Communists held the key posts of Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Minister of the Interior. They also controlled the trade unions. In elections held in May 1946, the communists obtained 40% of the vote and emerged as the largest party. At the beginning of 1948 the Communist minister of the interior began to purge the police of 'unreliable' officers and replace them with Communists. In February 1948 the non-Communist members of the cabinet resigned in protest, hoping President Benes would dismiss the Communist prime minister Klement Gottwald. However, the Communists held mass demonstrations and the Russian army began to build up along the Hungarian border. Prime minister Gottwald then demanded that President Benes appoint a new cabinet of Communists, which he did. Then on 9 May parliament passed a new constitution giving the Communist party a 'leading role'. Benes refused to sign it a...
The Velvet Revolution was followed by the Velvet Divorce. The Czechs and Slovaks were two quite different people with different histories. In June 1992 the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia won elections and pressed for Slovak independence. Czechs and Slovaks quickly reached agreement and on 1 January 1993 Czechoslovakia separated into two states, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The first President of the Czech Republic was Vaclav Havel. In 1999 the Czech Republic joined NATO. In 2004 it joined the EU.
Like the rest of Europe the Czech Republic suffered in the recession of 2009. Yet the Czech Republic soon recovered. Then in 2016 Czechia became the official alternative name for the country. Czechia is is a prosperous country. It is noted for making machines, paper, glass, steel and ceramics. It is also famous for beer. Today the population of Czechia is 10.6 million. A list of famous Czechs A timeline of the Czech Republic A brief history of Slovakia A brief history of Hungary A brief history of Prague A brief history of Poland Home Last revised 2019
The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence, and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November, was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France.
- from Defeat to Triumph: The Early History of The Franks
- The Beginnings of The Frankish Merovingian Dynasty
- The Turning Point For Europe: The Battle of Tours
- Charlemagne and The New Frankish Era
- The Lasting Influence of The Franks
In the valleys of the Rhine, that pulsating vein that flows through the very heart of Europe, Germanic tribes always flourished. One of these, a more prominent tribe, was known as the Franks. Not much is known about them before the 3rd century AD, after which they entered into the pages of history in a rather abrupt way. Some of the earliest mentions of the ‘Franks’ were penned by notable Romans of that era - Ammianus Marcellinus, Claudian, but also Sidonius Apollinaris. From these sources we can gather that the Franks and similar Germanic tribes, which were considered utterly barbaric by the Romans, were quite a thorn in the side of the Roman Empire. Gregory's Historia Francorum, History of France, implies that the early Franks were a cavalry people. (BoH / Public Domain ) They lived on the borders of the empire, flourishing in the river valleys of Wesser, Rhine, and Moselle rivers, gradually expanding westwards and occupying the Scheldt river valley as well. This habitat took on r...
But the warlike blood of the Germanic tribes was not easily controlled. Soon that would come to the forefront, as the Franks were allowed to create their own petty kingdoms within the empire. And once that happened, they grew in power, seizing opportunities where they were given. In northern Gaul, in the Roman armies of that province, one king stood out – the king of all Franks. His name was Chlodio, father of Merowig, and possibly the first ruler in the famous Frankish Merovingian Dynasty . In Chlodio’s time, the Western Roman Empire was in its last throws, and was soon to fall under the constant pressure from the Barbarian tribes. In fact, Chlodio the Longhaired seized his chance and expanded the Frankish territories through the northern Gaul, as the Roman forces were pressed fighting in the south. His successors, most likely his grandson and those after him, would gradually conquer all the Frankish tribes in Rhineland and Gaul, establishing the Merovingian dynasty as the sole rul...
The Umayyad Caliphate was a sprawling Muslimrealm that was quickly conquering large swaths of land across Europe. After their blindingly fast subjugation of the Iberian Peninsula, the Umayyads continued into mainland Europe and into the region of Francia. This ruthless and powerful force had little issue with conquering many towns in the south – these were largely undefended or had weak garrisons. Béziers, Nîmes, Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone, and Alet-les-Bains quickly fell, and the governor of Umayyad Iberia, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, set up his new capital in the town of Narbonne in today’s southern France. It was only in 732 AD that their advances into the heart of Francia were stopped – they were completely defeated in the Battle of Tours by the forces of Charles Martel. After this defeat the Umayyad forces retreated across the Pyreneesand back into Iberia. They would return to Francia three years later under the new leadership of Uqba ibn Al-Hajjaj. The second invasion would p...
The golden era for the Frankish realm would come in the age of Charles’ grandson – also named Charles. Charles would manage to expand his realm significantly after campaigning against the Saxons and the Lombards and would be dubbed as Charles the Great – Karolus Magnus – or as we know him today as Charlemagne. His greatly expanded realm was proclaimed as the Carolingian Empire, or the empire of the Romans and the Franks, after Charlemagne was crowned as emperor of the Romans, by Pope Leo III. The significance of Charlemagne as the successor of what was once the Western Roman Empire, lies in the fact that he managed to unite almost the entirety of western Europe into a single empire – leading to his epithet of ‘Pater Europae’ – father of Europe. The coronation of Charlemagne, he ruled the empire of the Romans and Franks. (Yann / Public Domain ) His empire would later on be known as the Holy Roman Empire and would last for a 1000 years – until 1806 when it would be dissolved by Napole...
Most people today would never truly associate modern France with a thoroughly Germanic heritage. But the truth is that this powerful European nation, even though its culture and language are very much romantic in nature, found its earliest roots in an ambitious and warlike Germanic tribe. Their West Germanic language, Frankish, was lost over the centuries of co-existence alongside the more numerous peoples in their realm. But even so, the heritage of the Germanic Franks cannot be overlooked. And to help us remember, we have the likes of Childeric, Pepin, Charles Martel, and Charlemagne, the heroes whose feats constantly remind us of the story of the rise of Franks. Top image: Victory over the Muslims at the Battle of Tours marked the furthest Muslim advance and enabled Frankish domination of Europe for the next century. Source: Bender235 / Public Domain . By Aleksa Vučković
The Mijalkov family spent a lot of time in Prague. Young Mijalkov's first job in the Macedonian government was as the assistant to the Minister of Defense for Security Intelligence, a position he held for two years starting in 1998. This was followed by two other government jobs also related to the defense and security of Macedonia.
The first of the Bourne franchise trots around Europe, supposedly in France and Switzerland but most of the film was shot in Paris and around Prague in the Czech Republic.. The opening scene of amnesiac Jason Bourne rescued from the Mediterranean by a fishing crew was filmed, not out in the ocean, but with a boat tied to the harbour of Imperia, on the coast of northwest Italy in the Liguria ...