The Gregorian calendar differs from the Julian only in that no century year is a leap year unless it is exactly divisible by 400 (e.g., 1600 and 2000). A further proposed refinement, the designation of years evenly divisible by 4,000 as common (not leap) years, would keep the Gregorian calendar accurate to within one day in 20,000 years.
On 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865.  The Paraguayan War (1864–1870) starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance ( Empire of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay ). It will kill almost 60% of the country's population.
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The Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar, is a solar calendar with 12 months of 28–31 days each. The year in both calendars consists of 365 days, with a leap day being added to February in the leap years. The months and length of months in the Gregorian calendar are the same as for the Julian calendar.
The Gregorian calendar is the one commonly used today. It was proposed by Aloysius Lilius, a physician from Naples, and adopted by Pope Gregory XIII in accordance with instructions from the Council of Trent (1545 - 1563) to correct for errors in the older Julian Calendar. It was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII in a papal bull, Inter Gravissimas ...
Each year between May and August according to the Gregorian calendar, the monsoon brings heavy rains to the Ethiopian highlands south of Egypt. The waters flow into the Nile, causing the river to flood its banks. That flooding determined the size of the harvest. A system of dams and dikes drove the floodwater into fields to saturate the soil.
The Gregorian calendar was first adopted in Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain in 1582, and included the following changes: New formula for calculating leap years: The year is evenly divisible by 4; If the year can be evenly divided by 100, it is NOT a leap year, unless; The year is also evenly divisible by 400: Then it is a leap year.