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  1. Feb 24, 2009 · The Filipinos established the first republic in Asia in 1898, but it was short lived. ... in Asia. a former Soviet Republic located in Central Asia. ... countries which go by the name of Congo ...

  2. Answer (1 of 4): Among, the first five republics in Asia, two (the Republic of Formosa and the Republic of China) are connected with Taiwan: * Lanfang Republic (蘭芳共和國), a state founded in 1777 by Hakka Chinese immigrants on the Indonesian island of Borneo and the first republic in Asia.

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    When was the First Republic in Asia established?

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  4. › wiki › KazakhstanKazakhstan - Wikipedia

    Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia with a land area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi); it has borders with Russia in the north, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south. The capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana.

  5. › wiki › Republic_of_ArmeniaArmenia - Wikipedia

    Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region; and is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor under a Russian peacekeeping force, and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.

    • Origins of The ETR Movement
    • Rebellion
    • Establishment of The ETR
    • Christians and Hindus
    • National Army
    • End of The First East Turkestan Republic
    • Battles in The Uighur War For Independence
    • Aftermath
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    The stirrings of Uyghur separatism during the early 20th century were greatly influenced by the Turkish jadidist movement,[citation needed] which spread as wealthier Uyghurs, inspired by notions of Pan-Turkism, traveled abroad to Turkey, Europe, and Russia, and returned home determined to modernize and develop the educational system in Xinjiang.[citation needed] The first major school founded on the European model was located outside of Kashgar and, unlike the traditional curricula of the madrassah, focused on more technical areas of study such as science, mathematics, history, and language studies.[citation needed] Jadidism emphasized the power of education as a tool for personal and national self-advancement, a development sure to disturb the traditional status quo in Xinjiang. The ruler of Xinjiang, Governor Yang Zengxin (楊增新), responded by closing down or interfering with the operations of several of the new schools.[citation needed] The birth of the Soviet Union influenced the...

    The situation came to a head in March 1930, when the Khan of Kumul Prefecture (Hami) or Kumul Khanate in Eastern Xinjiang, Shah Mexsut, died. In policies carried over from the Qing era, the Khan had been allowed to continue his hereditary rule over the area consistent with the principles of feudalism or satrapy. The importance of Hami territory, strategically located straddling the main road linking the province to Eastern China and rich in undeveloped farmland, together with a desire by the government to consolidate power and eliminate the old practice of indirect rule, led Jin to abolish the Khanate and assert direct rule upon Shah Mexsut's death. Jin Shuren then proceeded to double agricultural taxes upon the local Uyghur population, expropriated choice farmland, and distributed it among Han Chinese refugees from neighboring Gansu province, subsidizing their efforts and resettling displaced Uyghurs on poor-quality land near the desert. The new garrison stationed in Hami proved ev...

    The Eastern Turkistsan Independence Association in Kashghar ran a newspaper called Independence(Istqlāl). While this was transpiring, in the nearby southern Tarim Basin city of Khotan, three brothers of rich Bughra family, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, educated in the jadidist tradition, in February 1933 had led a rebellion of gold miners who worked in Surghak mines near Keriya city, also in Yurunkash and Karakash mountain rivers, and established themselves as emirs of the city, having declared the Khotan Emirateand independence from China on March 16, 1933. Leader of Karakash gold miners Ismail Khan Khoja sent message to Governor Jin Shuren: "Foolish infidels like you are not fit to rule. ... You infidels think that because you have rifles, guns ... and money, you can depend on them, but we depend of God in whose hands are our lives." Local provincial authorities and troops were annihilated by the miners throughout Khotan vilayet, rare Chinese popu...

    Hostility to Christianity was espoused by the Committee for National Revolution. The Bughras applied Shari'a while ejecting the Khotan-based Swedish missionaries. They demanded the withdrawal of the Swedish missionaries while enacting Shariah on March 16, 1933. In the name of Islam, the Uyghur leader Amir Abdullah Bughra violently physically assaulted the Yarkand-based Swedish missionaries and would have executed them all, but they ended up only being banished thanks to the British interceding in their favor. There were beheadings and executions of Christians who had converted from Islam to Christianity at the hands of the Amir's followers.The missionaries faced hostility from the Uighur leader Muhammad Amin Bughra. There were several hundred Uighur Muslims converted to Christianity by the Swedes. The Swedish Mission Society ran a printing operation. Life of East Turkestan was the state run media of the East Turkistan Republic. The Abdulbaqi lead government used the Swedish Mission...

    The National Army of the Islamic Republic East Turkestan Republic was formed on November 12, 1933, and originally consisted of two divisions (around 22,000 troops), the Qeshqer infantry division (stationed in the capital, Qeshqer), and the Khotan Infantry Division (stationed in Khotan). The National Army was poorly armed and trained in the beginning of the Revolution, so a military academy was set up in Atush (Artush) to train cadets.[citation needed] All Turkic ethnic groups were called to take up arms and join the National Army.[citation needed] The military was headed by the Defense Minister Mehmut Muhiti (an Uyghur revolutionary from Turpan).[citation needed] Although the true size of the National Army is not known, it is estimated at around 40,000 to 60,000 according to official Soviet sources.[citation needed]: 1. Qeshqer infantry division 2. Khotan infantry division 3. Aksu cavalry brigade 4. Qumul revolutionary regiment (later became a division) 5. Turpan revolutionary briga...

    In the north, aid came to Sheng Shicai's forces on January 24, 1934, in the form of two Soviet brigades, the Altaiskaya and Tarbaghataiskaya, disguised as "White Russian Cossack Altai Volunteer Army" and led by Red Army General Volgin (nickname of future Marshal Rybalko) in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. The Japanese annexation of Manchuria and rumored support for Ma Zhongying's Hui forces were one cause for concern troubling Joseph Stalin, another was the prospect that rebellion in Xinjiang might spread to the Soviet Central Asian Republics and offer a haven to Turkic Muslim Basmachi rebels. Trade ties between Xinjiang and the Soviet Union also gave the Soviets reason for supporting Sheng. Newly appointed Soviet Consul-General in Urumchi Garegin Apresov openly said to Sheng Shicai in May 1933 : You can develop the province and improve living conditions of the people of different nationalities, develop their culture. But if you let them ( muslim rebels ) to create an Independent S...

    Kizil massacre

    In the Kizil massacre in June 1933, Uighur and Kirghiz Turkic fighters broke their agreement not to attack a column of retreating Han Chinese and Chinese Muslim soldiers from YarkandNew City. The Turkic Muslim fighters massacred 800 Chinese Muslim and Chinese civilians.

    Battle of Aksu

    The Battle of Aksu on May 31, 1933 was a minor battle in which Chinese Muslim troops were expelled from the Aksu oases of Xinjiang by Uighurs led by Isma'il Begwhen they rose up in revolt.

    Battle of Sekes Tash

    The Battle of Sekes Tash was a minor battle on September 7, 1933 when Chinese Muslim troops under general Ma Zhancangmade a surprising sortie on the evening from Kashgar New City, attacked and inflicted a defeat upon Uighur and Kirghiz troops who were resting at village of Sekes Tesh. About 200 Uighur and Kirghiz were killed, while Ma Zhancang troops returned in organized order to Kashgar New City.

    By the end of 1934, Sheng Shicai, with Soviet backing, was firmly in control of the Xinjiang. With Soviet mediation, Khoja Niyaz agreed to serve as the vice chairman of the Xinjiang Government led by Sheng. Sheng appointed Mahmut Muhiti as the deputy military commander of the Kashgar region, and permitted Yulbars Khan, one of the Hami rebel leaders, to serve as the head of Hami County. Ma Zhongying was persuaded to study in the Soviet Union, where he disappeared. His subordinate forces in southern Xinjiang were eventually absorbed by Sheng Shicai. Muhammad Amin Bughra fled to Afghanistan where he sought Japanese support for the ETR. In 1937, Mahmut Muhiti and Ma Hushan, Ma Zhongying's former subordinate, launched a rebellion in southern Xinjiang against Sheng. The rebellion was crushed by Sheng with Soviet support. Mahmut Muhiti and Ma Hushan fled to British India. Mahmut Muhiti eventually collaborated with Japan and died in Japanese-occupied Beiping in 1944. Ma Hushan joined Qingha...

    Ismail Beg before the Battle of Aksu
    Uyghur reinforcements from Khotan marching to Kashgar
    Muhammad Amin Bughra (1901-1965), Amirof Khotan Emirate (1933-1934),Vice- Chairman of KMT Xinjiang Government (1948-1949)
    Khotan Amir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (1933–1934)
  6. Almost all of the civilian settlements were located directly below or near these fortifications. After the members of the first Crusade appeared in Asia Minor, the Armenians developed close ties to European Crusader States. They flourished in south-eastern Asia Minor until it was conquered by Muslim states.

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