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  1. Lanfang Republic (蘭芳共和國), a state founded in 1777 by Hakka Chinese immigrants on the Indonesian island of Borneo and the first republic in Asia. The Dutch ended the republic in 1884 during their conquest of Indonesia, though they did not formally declare possession of the region until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

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    The official name of the state on the mainland was the "Republic of China", but it has been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó or Jung-hwa (中國)) to refer to itself, "China" being derived from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("s...


    A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911, successfully overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949, the republic was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), a Japanese invasion (1937–45), and a full-scale civil war (1927–49), with central authority stron...


    In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy. The Qing dynasty that preceded the republic had experienced instability throughout the 19th century and suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism.A program of institutional reform proved too little and too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged the monarchy's existence until 1912. The Chinese Republic grew out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing...

    Nanjing decade

    After Sun's death in March 1925, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of the Kuomintang. In 1926, Chiang led the Northern Expedition with the intention of defeating the Beiyang warlords and unifying the country. Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China. However, he soon dismissed his Soviet advisers, being convinced that they wanted to get rid of the KMT and take control. Chiang decided to purge the Communists, killing thousands of them. At the same time, oth...

    The first Republic of China national government was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, and was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which state that "[the ROC] shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people." Sun Yat-sen was the provisional president. D...

    The military power of the Republic of China was inherited from the New Army, mainly the Beiyang Army, which later split into many factions and attacked each other. The National Revolutionary Army was established by Sun Yat-sen in 1925 in Guangdong with the goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. Originally organized with Soviet aid as a mean...

    In the early years of the Republic of China, the economy remained unstable as the country was marked by constant warfare between different regional warlord factions. The Beiyang government in Beijing experienced constant changes in leadership, and this political instability led to stagnation in economic development until Chinese reunification in 19...


    For works on specific people and events, please see the relevant articles. 1. Wright, Tim (2018). "Republican China, 1911–1949". Chinese Studies. Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OBO/9780199920082-0028. ISBN 9780199920082.

    Media related to Republic of China (1912–1949)at Wikimedia Commons
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  3. Mar 11, 2020 · In 1777, a Chinese gang in Borneo created the first democratic republic in S.E. Asia. When talking about the republican form of government, the United States is generally acknowledged as the model for most of the world’s modern republics. John Trumbull’s painting ‘Declaration of Independence’, depicting the drafting of the American ...

  4. Feb 24, 2009 · Was Formosa the first republic in Asia? Nope. The Philippines was the very first republic in Asia.

  5. Sep 13, 2011 · These documents depict a weak and powerless China under the Qing Dynasty, and describe the country's long journey to establish the first democratic Republic of China. Dr. Mi Chu's book Chu Cheng and XinHai Revolution is based on the rich manuscript collection of her Grandfather Ju Zheng -- the revolutionary who was responsible for the "Wuchang ...