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  1. Lanfang Republic (蘭芳共和國), a state founded in 1777 by Hakka Chinese immigrants on the Indonesian island of Borneo and the first republic in Asia. The Dutch ended the republic in 1884 during their conquest of Indonesia, though they did not formally declare possession of the region until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

  2. Feb 24, 2009 · The Philippines was the very first republic in Asia. What state was the first to be called the lone star republic? asia What was the first republic in south east Asia? It's the Republic of the...

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    What is the First Republic in Asia?

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    • Quick Facts About The Republic of China
    • Republic of China’s History
    • Republic of China’s Economic Development
    • Diplomacy of The Republic of China
    • See Also
    Chinese Name: 中华民国 (/jong hwaa min gwor/)
    Founder: Sun Yat-sen
    Capital: Nanjing, Beijing, Chongqing (auxiliary capital)
    Governing party: Kuomintang (KMT)

    Sprouting Period - Xinhai Revolution

    At the end of the 19thcentury, the last imperial dynasty - the Qing Dynasty - was becoming more and more corrupt and decadent. In addition, the aggression of western capitalist powers made more and more people realize the backwardness of China’s social system. Various revolutionary groups emerged and the Xinhai Revolution broke out. The Xinhai Revolution was the nation-wide revolution from 1911 to 1912, overthrowing the feudal regime of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912). The Wuchang Uprising marke...


    In January 1912, Sun Yat-sen was elected to the position of provisional president. After he took office, he announced the state’s name to be the Republic of China, a five-color flag to be the national flag, and the solar calendar to be the working calendar. The provisional government also published a Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China. In order to take over government control completely, the provisional government compromised with Yuan Shikai, a cabinet minister from the Qing d...

    Dark Ages - Beiyang Warlord Period

    In April 1912, Yuan Shikai was elected provisional president and moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing. The period from 1912 to 1928 is called the Beiyang Warlord Period. At the beginning of this period, Yuan tried to restore the monarchy but was strongly resisted. After Yuan died in 1916, the Beiyang government existed in name only. Different warlords fought to extend their regional control.

    The general trend of economic development in the Republic of China was up and down. Against the background of political and economic turmoil, business, transportation, and financial industries sprung up rapidly. On the other hand, currency inflation and enterprise bankruptcy were rife throughout the Republic of China.

    The diplomacy of the Republic of China resulted in many proud achievements, but also some losses. Lots of brilliant diplomats were available to help the country. The main gains on the diplomatic front during the Republic period included: 1) transfer and modernization of the Qing dynasty’s diplomatic office; 2) cultivation of generations of talented...

  4. Timeline of Chinese history. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding 's reign, [1] [2] who was mentioned as the twenty-first King of Shang by the same. [3] [4] Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents (early ...

    • Provisional Government
    • Beiyang Era
    • Nationalist Era
    • Authoritarian Era
    • Democratic Era
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
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    Founding of the republic

    The Qing dynasty in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was challenged by civil unrest and foreign invasions ever since they lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Internal rebellions and their repression brought millions of deaths, conflicts with foreign Western European powers brought humiliating unequal treaties, exacted reparations that burdened the fiscal system, and compromised the country's territorial integrity. Popular sentiment among Han Chinese grew that political power should retu...

    Early republic

    On 1 January 1912, Sun officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President. However, power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time. To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan's demand for China to be united under a Beijing government headed by...


    The overthrow of the old imperial regime in 1911 produced a surge in Chinese nationalism, an end to censorship, and a demand for professional, nation-wide journalism. All the major cities launched such efforts. Special attention was paid to China's role in the World War, to the disappointing Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and to the aggressive demands and actions of Japan against Chinese interests.Journalists created professional organizations, and aspired to separate news from commentary. A...

    Second Revolution

    Song was assassinated in March 1913. Some people believe that Yuan Shikai was responsible, and although it has never been proven, he had already arranged the assassination of several pro-revolutionist generals. Animosity towards Yuan grew. In April he secured a Reorganization Loan of 25 million pounds sterlingfrom Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and Japan, without consulting the parliament first. The loan was used to finance Yuan's Beiyang Army. On May 20[citation needed] Yuan conclude...

    Nanjing decade

    The "Nanjing Decade" of 1928-37 was one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists, with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy, social progress, development of democracy and cultural creativity. Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy. In May 1930 the government regained the right to set its tariff, which before then had been set by the foreign powers.[citation needed] The Nation...

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese desires on China. Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria on 18 September 1931 and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Kuomintang economy. The League of Nations, established at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face...

    Chinese Civil War

    During World War II the United States emerged as a major player in Chinese affairs. As an ally it embarked in late 1941 on a program of massive military and financial aid to the hard-pressed Nationalist Government. In January 1943 the United States and Britain led the way in revising their treaties with China, bringing to an end a century of unequal treaty relations. Within a few months a new agreement was signed between the United States and the Republic of China for the stationing of Americ...

    Cross-straits relations and international position in 1949–1970

    At the end of 1943 the Cairo Declaration was issued, including among its clauses that all territories of China—including Formosa (Taiwan)—that Japan had occupied would be returned to the Republic of China. This was reiterated in the Potsdam Declaration, issued in 1945. Later that year World War II ended, and Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration, surrendering unconditionally. The Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces ordered that Japanese forces in Taiwan surrender to the government of the...

    Tensions between Mainlanders and people of Taiwan

    After World War II, General Order No. 1 ordered the forces of the Empire of Japan in Taiwan to surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. The Republic of China appointed Chen Yi as the Chief Executive of Taiwan. He arrived in Taiwan on 24 October 1945 and received the last Japanese governor, Ando Rikichi, who signed the document of surrender on the next day. On the next day, Chen Yi proclaimed Taiwan Retrocession Day. The validity of the proclamation is subject to some debate however, with s...

    Economic developments

    Partially with the help of the China Aid Act of 1948 and the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction, the Republic of China government implemented a far-reaching and highly successful land reform program on Taiwan during the 1950s. They redistributed land among small farmers and compensated large landowners with commodities certificates and stock in state-owned industries. These rural reforms, such as the 375 rent reductionprogram, were never implemented with much force in main...

    Democratic reforms

    The Republic of China entered into the development phase of constitutional democracy with the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947. Subsequently, the National Revolutionary Army was also renamed as Republic of China Armed Forces and was nationalized. However, due to the Chinese Civil War, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion was passed as amendment to the Constitution of the Republic of China. This established martial law in...

    Political transition

    The 2000 presidential election marked the end of the Kuomintang's status as the ruling party. Opposition DPP candidate Chen Shui-bian won a three-way race that saw the Pan-Blue vote split by independent James Soong (formerly of the Kuomintang) and Kuomintang candidate Lien Chan. Chan garnered 39% of the vote. After the election, Soong formed the People First Party(PFP). Chen Shui-bian was re-elected by a narrow 0.2% of the vote the 2004 presidential election over Kuomintang Chairman Lien, who...

    Bergere, Marie-Claire. Sun Yat-Sen(1998). Standard biography, based on rigorous modern scholarship.
    Bianco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949(Paris, 1967; Stanford University Press, 1971). Classic lucid synthesis.
    Boorman, Howard L., ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. (Vol. I-IV and Index. 1967–1979). 600 valuable short scholarly biographies excerpt and text search Available at Internet Archive.
    Ch'i Hsi-sheng. Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945(1982).
    Mühlhahn, Klaus: China, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.
    Wu, Lin-Chun: Governments, Parliaments and Parties (China), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.
    He, Yan: Making Sense of the War (China), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.
  5. Mar 22, 2019 · • 221-206 B.C.: Qin Dynasty - The Qin Dynasty, from which China derives its name (Qin is pronounced “Chin”), was the first official empire in its history. The Qins standardized regional written...

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