- Maldives (/ ˈmɔːldiːvz /, US: / ˈmɔːldaɪvz /; Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, romanized : Dhivehi Raajje, Dhivehi pronunciation: [d̪iʋehi ɾaːd͡ʒd͡ʒe]), officially the Republic of Maldives (Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ, romanized : Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa, Dhivehi pronunciation: [d̪iʋehi ɾaːd͡ʒd͡ʒeːge d͡ʒumhuːɾijjaː]), is an archipelagic country located in Southern Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean.
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Parts of Asia remained free from European control, although not influence, such as Persia, Thailand and most of China. In the twentieth century, Imperial Japan expanded into China, Korea and Southeast Asia during the Second World War. After the war, many Asian countries became independent from European powers.
- Origins of The ETR Movement
- Establishment of The ETR
- Christians and Hindus
- National Army
- End of The First East Turkestan Republic
- Battles in The Uighur War For Independence
- See Also
The stirrings of Uyghur separatism during the early 20th century were greatly influenced by the Turkish jadidist movement, which spread as wealthier Uyghurs, inspired by notions of Pan-Turkism, traveled abroad to Turkey, Europe, and Russia, and returned home determined to modernize and develop the educational system in Xinjiang.[ci...
The situation came to a head in March 1930, when the Khan of Kumul Prefecture (Hami) or Kumul Khanate in Eastern Xinjiang, Shah Maqsud, died. In policies carried over from the Qing era, the Khan had been allowed to continue his hereditary rule over the area consistent with the principles of feudalism or satrapy. The importance of Hami territory, st...
The Eastern Turkistsan Independence Association in Kashghar ran a newspaper called Independence(Istqlāl). While this was transpiring, in the nearby southern Tarim Basin city of Khotan, three brothers of rich Bughra family, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, educated in the jadidist tradition, in February 1933 had led a ...
Hostility to Christianity was espoused by the Committee for National Revolution. The Bughras applied Shari'a while ejecting the Khotan-based Swedish missionaries. They demanded the withdrawal of the Swedish missionaries while enacting Shariah on March 16, 1933. In the name of Islam, the Uyghur leader Amir Abdullah Bughra violently physically assaul...
The National Army of the Islamic Republic East Turkestan Republic was formed on November 12, 1933, and originally consisted of two divisions (around 22,000 troops), the Qeshqer infantry division (stationed in the capital, Qeshqer), and the Khotan Infantry Division (stationed in Khotan). The National Army was poorly armed and trained in the beginnin...
In the north, aid came to Sheng Shicai's forces on January 24, 1934, in the form of two Soviet brigades, the Altaiskaya and Tarbaghataiskaya, disguised as "White Russian Cossack Altai Volunteer Army" and led by Red Army General Volgin (nickname of future Marshal Rybalko) in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. The Japanese annexation of Manchuria and r...
In the Kizil massacre in June 1933, Uighur and Kirghiz Turkic fighters broke their agreement not to attack a column of retreating Han Chinese and Chinese Muslim soldiers from YarkandNew City. The Turkic Muslim fighters massacred 800 Chinese Muslim and Chinese civilians.
Battle of Aksu
The Battle of Aksu on May 31, 1933 was a minor battle in which Chinese Muslim troops were expelled from the Aksu oases of Xinjiang by Uighurs led by Isma'il Begwhen they rose up in revolt.
Battle of Sekes Tash
The Battle of Sekes Tash was a minor battle on September 7, 1933 when Chinese Muslim troops under general Ma Zhancangmade a surprising sortie on the evening from Kashgar New City, attacked and inflicted a defeat upon Uighur and Kirghiz troops who were resting at village of Sekes Tesh. About 200 Uighur and Kirghiz were killed, while Ma Zhancang troops returned in organized order to Kashgar New City.
By the end of 1934, Sheng Shicai, with Soviet backing, was firmly in control of the Xinjiang. With Soviet mediation, Khoja Niyaz agreed to serve as the vice chairman of the Xinjiang Government led by Sheng. Sheng appointed Mahmut Muhiti as the deputy military commander of the Kashgar region, and permitted Yulbars Khan, one of the Hami rebel leaders...Ismail Beg before the Battle of AksuUyghur reinforcements from Khotan marching to KashgarMuhammad Amin Bughra (1901-1965), Amirof Khotan Emirate (1933-1934),Vice- Chairman of KMT Xinjiang Government (1948-1949)Khotan Amir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (1933–1934)
A republic (from Latin res publica 'public affair') is a form of government in which "supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives".  In republics, the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained through ...
Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic. The president is the head of state, the prime minister is the head of government, and the constitution provides for two deliberative bodies, the Council of Representatives and the Council of Union. The judiciary is free and independent of the executive and the legislature.
Lanfang Republic (蘭芳共和國), a state founded in 1777 by Hakka Chinese immigrants on the Indonesian island of Borneo and the first republic in Asia. The Dutch ended the republic in 1884 during their conquest of Indonesia, though they did not formally declare possession of the region until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911.