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  1. His song “Our Town Is Burning” which was written in 1938 became “one of the most popular songs in the ghettos and concentration camps." Unfortunately, Gebirtig was shot and killed in the Kraków ghetto. Another individual who was in the Kraków ghetto was Roman Polanski, who became a famous film director upon his survival of the Holocaust.

  2. The Eichmann Trial This Month in Holocaust History In November 1940, 380,000 Jews were sealed inside the Warsaw ghetto. Over 80,000 Jews died as a result of the appalling conditions, overcrowding and starvation. Nevertheless, artists and intellectuals continued their creative endeavors. In July 1942 the deportations to death camps began.

    • Background
    • The Uprising
    • Casualties
    • Aftermath
    • Opposing Forces
    • in Popular Culture
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    In 1939, German authorities began to concentrate Poland's population of over three million Jews into a number of extremely crowded ghettos located in large Polish cities. The largest of these, the Warsaw Ghetto, collected approximately 300,000–400,000 people into a densely packed, 3.3 km2 central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampan...

    January revolt

    On 18 January 1943, the Germans began their second deportation of the Jews, which led to the first instance of armed insurgency within the ghetto. While Jewish families hid in their so-called "bunkers", fighters of the ŻZW, joined by elements of the ŻOB, resisted, engaging the Germans in direct clashes.Though the ŻZW and ŻOB suffered heavy losses (including some of their leaders), the Germans also took casualties, and the deportation was halted within a few days. Only 5,000 Jews were removed,...


    Two resistance organizations, the ŻZW and ŻOB, took control of the ghetto. They built dozens of fighting posts and executed a number of Nazi collaborators, including Jewish Ghetto Police officers, members of the fake (German-sponsored and controlled) resistance organization Żagiew, as well as Gestapo and Abwehr agents (including the alleged agent and Judenrat associate Dr Alfred Nossig, executed on 22 February 1943). The ŻOB established a prison to hold and execute traitors and collaborators....

    Main revolt

    On 19 April 1943, on the eve of Passover, the police and SS auxiliary forces entered the ghetto. They were planning to complete the deportation action within three days, but were ambushed by Jewish insurgents firing and tossing Molotov cocktails and hand grenades from alleyways, sewers, and windows. The Germans suffered 59 casualties and their advance bogged down. Two of their combat vehicles (an armed conversion of a French-made Lorraine 37L light armored vehicle and an armored car) were set...

    13,000 Jews were killed in the ghetto during the uprising (some 6,000 among them were burnt alive or died from smoke inhalation). Of the remaining 50,000 residents, almost all were captured and shipped to the death camps of Majdanek and Treblinka. Jürgen Stroop's internal SS daily report for Friedrich Krüger, written on 16 May 1943, stated: Accordi...

    After the uprising was over, most of the incinerated houses were razed, and the Warsaw concentration camp complex was established in their place. Thousands of people died in the camp or were executed in the ruins of the ghetto. At the same time, the SS were hunting down the remaining Jews still hiding in the ruins. On 19 April 1943, the first day o...


    Two Jewish underground organisations fought in the Warsaw Uprising: the left wing Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB) founded in July 1942 by Zionist Jewish youth groups within the Warsaw Ghetto; and the right wing Żydowski Związek Wojskowy (ŻZW), or Jewish Military Union, a national organization founded in 1939 by former Polish military officers of Jewish background which had strong ties to the Polish Home Army, and cells in almost every major town across Poland.However both organisations were...


    According to Marian Fuks, the Ghetto uprising would not have been possible without assistance from the Polish Resistance. Before the uprising started, the most important aid from the Polish resistance to the Jewish resistance took part of weapon smuggling and delivery. Some of the earliest weapons delivered to the ghetto in mid-1942 came from the communist Gwardia Ludowa group, which in August 1942 provided Jewish resistance with 9 pistols and 5 hand grenades'. Antoni Chruściel, commander of...


    Ultimately, the efforts of the Jewish resistance fighters proved insufficient against the German occupation system. According to Hanna Krall, the German task force dispatched to put down the revolt and complete the deportation action numbered 2,090 men armed with a number of minethrowers and other light and medium artillery pieces, several armored vehicles, and more than 200 machine and submachine guns. Its backbone consisted of 821 Waffen-SS paramilitary soldiers from five SS Panzergrenadier...

    The uprising is the subject of numerous works, in multiple media, such as Aleksander Ford's film Border Street (1948), John Hersey's novel The Wall (1950), which was filmed as a television movie in 1982, starring Eli Wallach, Leon Uris' novel Mila 18 (1961), Jack P. Eisner's autobiography The Survivor (1980), Andrzej Wajda's films A Generation (195...

    Voices From the Inferno: Holocaust Survivors Describe the Last Months in the Warsaw Ghetto, an online exhibition by Yad Vashem
    The Warsaw Ghetto archive (including The Stroop Report) at Jewish Virtual Library
    • 19 April – 16 May 1943
    • Uprising defeated, Surviving Jews deported to Majdanek and Treblinka
  3. Dec 04, 2019 · The ghettos isolating Jews were meant to be temporary. In many places, ghettoization lasted only a few days or weeks. In others, ghettoization lasted for several years. 3 The vast majority of ghetto inhabitants died from disease, starvation, shooting, or deportation to killing centers. More information about this image Tags ghettos Final Solution

  4. Jan 27, 2013 · On the hot night of 3 August 1942, 19-year-old David Graber signed his name on a piece of paper and put it inside a metal box at 68 Nowolipki Street, in the heart of the Warsaw Ghetto. "I would...

  5. When the Russians liberated the Lódz ghetto, there were only 877 survivors left. The vast majority had died from the harsh conditions or were sent to the killing center at Chelmno or, in the ghetto’s final days, to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. Ordering Records Additional details about these victims may be included in the original records.

  6. Nathan Rapoport (1911-1987), born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Jewish sculptor. In 1939 he escaped the Nazi occupation of Poland, spending the war years in the Soviet Union. At the war's end, he returned to Warsaw to study in the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts. In 1950, he moved to New York, where he lived and worked until his death in 1987. e-Newsletter

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