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    What was the first ghetto in Poland?

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    Were there Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising?

    How did the ghettos separate the Jews from the Poles?

  2. In the Łódź ghetto, located in a part of Poland that had been incorporated into the German Reich, residents were particularly isolated from the surrounding population and had to exist on the small rations provided by the Germans. 2 Smuggling of food and medicine—a lifeline for other ghettos—was nearly impossible in Łódź. In early 1942, a young girl living in the Łódź ghetto kept a diary of her experiences.

  3. The first extensive Jewish migration from Western Europe to Poland occurred at the time of the First Crusade in 1098. Under Bolesław III (1102–1139), Jews, encouraged by the tolerant regime of this ruler, settled throughout Poland, including over the border in Lithuanian territory as far as Kiev.

    • 1,250,000 (ancestry, passport eligible); 202,300 (citizenship)
    • 10,000–20,000
  4. Jews deported from the Kraków Ghetto to KL Płaszów. In late August and early September 1942, 12-13,000 Jews (many originating from Kraków) were also sent to Bełżec as the ghettos in nearby Słomniki and Wieliczka were liquidated.

    • Origin of The Term "Ghetto"Click Here to Copy A Link to This Section Link Copied
    • Ghettos During World War Iiclick Here to Copy A Link to This Section Link Copied
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    • Ghettos in Hungaryclick Here to Copy A Link to This Section Link Copied

    The term "ghetto" originated from the name of the Jewish quarter in Venice, Italy. Venetian authorities compelled the city's Jews to live in the quarter, which was established in 1516. In the 16th and 17th centuries, officials ranging from local authorities to the Austrian emperor ordered the creation of ghettos for Jews in Frankfurt, Rome, Prague, and other cities.

    During World War II, the SS and other German occupation authorities concentrated urban and sometimes regional Jewish populations in ghettos. Living conditions were miserable. Ghettos were often enclosed districts that isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities from the non-Jewish population and from other Jewish communities. The Germans established at least 1,143 ghettos in the occupied eastern territories. There were three types of ghettos: 1. closed ghettos 2. open ghettos 3. destruction ghettos German occupation authorities established the first ghetto in occupied Poland in Piotrków Trybunalski in October 1939. The largest ghetto in occupied Poland was the Warsaw ghetto. In Warsaw, more than 400,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles. Other major ghettos were established in the cities of Lodz, Krakow, Bialystok, Lvov, Lublin, Vilna, Kovno, Czestochowa, and Minsk. Tens of thousands of western European Jews were also deported to ghettos in the east. The Germans...

    Jews responded with a variety of resistance efforts. Ghetto residents frequently smuggled food, medicine, weapons, or intelligence across the ghetto walls. These and other such activities often took place without the knowledge or approval of the Jewish councils. On the other hand, some Jewish councils and some individual council members tolerated or encouraged the smuggling because the goods were necessary to keep ghetto residents alive. The Germans generally showed little concern in principle about religious worship, attendance at cultural events, or participation in youth movements inside the ghetto walls. However, they often saw a “security threat” in any social gathering and would move ruthlessly to incarcerate or kill perceived ringleaders and participants. The Germans generally forbade any form of consistent schooling or education. In some ghettos, members of Jewish resistance movements staged armed uprisings. The largest of these was the Warsaw ghetto uprisingin spring 1943....

    In Hungary, ghettoization did not begin until the spring of 1944 after the German invasion and occupation. In less than three months, the Hungarian gendarmerie, coordinating with German deportation experts from the Reich Main Office for Security, concentrated nearly 440,000 Jews from all over Hungary except for the capital city, Budapest. They forced the Jews into short-term “destruction ghettos” and then deported them into German custody at the Hungarian border. The Germans deported most of the Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center. In Budapest, Hungarian authorities required Jews to confine themselves to marked houses (so-called Star of David View This Term in the Glossary houses). On October 15, 1944, leaders of the fascist Arrow Cross movement seized power in a German-sponsored coup. A few weeks later, the Arrow Cross government formally established a ghetto in Budapest. About 63,000 Jews lived in this 0.1 square mile area. Approximately 25,000 Jews who carried...

  5. Benjamin Gasul, "The Jewish Ghetto". A Jewish-American doctor named Benjamin Gasul took this footage in Warsaw, Poland, in 1939 as part of a broader trip to Europe. Gasul had emigrated to the United States from Lithuania at the age of sixteen. After earning his medical degree in Chicago, he later studied in Vienna, where he met his future wife ...

    • June 1939
    • 60.4567, FILM ID: 2832
    • 00:02:41
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