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  1. Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Philosophy_of_Friedrich

    Georges Bataille argued in 1937, in the Acéphale review, that Nietzsche's thoughts were too free to be instrumentalized by any political movement. In "Nietzsche and Fascists," he argued against such instrumentalization, by the left or the right, declaring that Nietzsche's aim was to by-pass the short timespan of modern politics, and its ...

  2. Friedrich Nietzsche (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

    plato.stanford.edu › entries › nietzsche
    • Life and Works
    • Critique of Religion and Morality
    • Value Creation
    • The Self and Self-Fashioning
    • Difficulties of Nietzsche’s Philosophical Writing
    • Key Doctrines

    Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in Röcken (near Leipzig),where his father was a Lutheran minister. His father died in 1849, andthe family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a householdcomprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister,Elisabeth. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career,culminating in May 1869 when he was called to a chair in classicalphilology at Basel. At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed tothat post. His teacher Frie...

    Nietzsche is arguably most famous for his criticisms of traditionalEuropean moral commitments, together with their foundations inChristianity. This critique is very wide-ranging; it aims to underminenot just religious faith or philosophical moral theory, butalso many central aspects of ordinary moral consciousness, some ofwhich are difficult to imagine doing without (e.g., altruisticconcern, guilt for wrongdoing, moral responsibility, the value ofcompassion, the demand for equal consideration...

    Unfortunately, neither Nietzsche’s ideas about the nature ofvalue creation nor his suggestions about what specific values shouldbe “created” have seemed as clear to readers as hisnegative critique of traditional values. (The disparity is oftenmarked in the literature by doubts about whether Nietzsche has a“positive” ethics to offer.) There is something to thisreaction: Nietzsche’s critique has a clear target and isdeveloped at an extended scale, whereas his suggestions aboutalternative values...

    A probing investigation into the psyche was a leading preoccupationfor Nietzsche throughout his career, and this aspect of his thoughthas rightly been accorded central importance across a long stretch ofthe reception, all the way from Kaufmann (1950) to recent work byPippin (2010), Katsafanas (2016), and others. Some ofNietzsche’s own programmatic reflections highlight thecentrality of this enterprise: perhaps most famously, he closes anextended treatment of the shortcomings of previous philo...

    For all the novelty of Nietzsche’s doctrines and the apparentextremity of his criticisms of traditional morality, religion, andphilosophy, perhaps nothing about his work seems more out of step withthe ordinary procedures of philosophy than the way he writes. Thepoint is sufficiently obvious that it has by now become an entirelyconventional trope to begin commentaries with remarks about theunconventional character of Nietzsche’s style. Despitethe attention it gets, however, we continue to lack...

    This entry has focused on broad themes pursued throughoutNietzsche’s writing, but much—evenmost—philosophically sophisticated commentary on his work hasbeen devoted to the explication of certain core doctrinal commitments,which Nietzsche seems to rely upon throughout, but which he does notdevelop systematically in his published works in the way typical forphilosophers. Some of these doctrines, like the idea of the eternalrecurrence of the same, are described as “fundamental” byNietzsche himse...

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    What are some of Nietzsche's main ideas?

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    Why did Nietzsche use his psychological analyses?

    • Life
    • Periodization of Writings
    • Problems of Interpretation
    • Nihilism and The Revaluation of Values
    • The Human Exemplar
    • Will to Power
    • Eternal Recurrence
    • Reception of Nietzsche’s Thought
    • References and Further Reading

    Because much of Nietzsche’s philosophical work has to do with the creation of self—or to put it in Nietzschean terms, “becoming what one is”— some scholars exhibit uncommon interest in the biographical anecdotes of Nietzsche’s life. Taking this approach, however, risks confusing aspects of the Nietzsche legend with what is important in his philosophical work, and many commentators are rightly skeptical of readings derived primarily from biographical anecdotes.Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was b...

    Nietzsche scholars commonly divide his work into periods, usually with the implication that discernable shifts in Nietzsche’s circumstances and intellectual development justify some form of periodization in the corpus. The following division is typical:(i.) before 1869—the juveniliaCautious Nietzsche biographers work to separate the facts of Nietzsche’s life from myth, and while a major part of the Nietzsche legend holds that Friedrich was a precocious child, writings from his youth bear witn...

    Nietzsche’s work in the beginning was heavily influenced, either positively or negatively, by the events of his young life. His early and on-going interest in the Greeks, for example, can be attributed in part to his Classical education at Schulpforta, for which he was well-prepared as a result of his family’s attempts to steer him into the ministry. Nietzsche’s intense association with Wagner no doubt enhanced his orientation towards the philosophy of Schopenhauer, and it probably promoted h...

    Although Michael Gillespie makes a strong case that Nietzsche misunderstood nihilism, and in any event Nietzsche’s Dionysianism would be a better place to look for an anti-metaphysical breakthrough in Nietzsche’s corpus (1995, 178), commentators as varied in philosophical orientation as Heidegger and Danto have argued that nihilism is a central theme in Nietzsche’s philosophy. Why is this so? The constellation of Nietzsche’s fundamental concepts moves within his general understanding of moder...

    How and why do nihilism and the pessimism of weakness prevail in modernity? Again, from the notebook of 1887 (Will to Power, aphorism 27), we find two conditions for this situation:With the fulfillment of “European nihilism” (which is no doubt, for Nietzsche, endemic throughout the Western world and anyplace touched by “modernity”), and the death of otherworldly hopes for redemption, Nietzsche imagines two possible responses: the easy response, the way of the “herd” and “the last man,” or the...

    The exemplar expresses hope not granted from metaphysical illusions. After sharpening the critique of art and genius during the positivistic period, Nietzsche seems more cautious about heaping praise upon specific historical figures and types, but even when he could no longer find an ideal exception, he nevertheless deemed it requisite to fabricate one in myth. Whereas exceptional humans of the past belong to an exalted “republic of genius,” those of the future, those belonging to human desti...

    The world’s eternally self-creating, self-destroying play is conditioned by time. Yet, Nietzsche’s skepticism concerning what can be known of telos, indeed his refutation of an absolute telos independent of human fabrication, demands a view of time that differs from those that place willing, purposiveness, and efficient causes in the service of goals, sufficient reason, and causa prima. Another formulation of this problem might ask, “what is the history of willing, if not the demonstration of...

    The reception of Nietzsche’s work, on all levels of engagement, has been complicated by historical contingencies that are related only by accident to the thought itself. The first of these complications pertains to the editorial control gained by Elizabeth in the aftermath of her brother’s mental and physical collapse. Elisabeth’s overall impact on her brother’s reputation is generally thought to be very problematic. Her husband, Bernhard Förster, whom Friedrich detested, was a leader of the...

    1. Samtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe, ed. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari, 15 vols (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980). 1. This “critical student edition” of collected works, commonly referenced as the KSA, contains Nietzsche’s major writings and most of the well-known essays and aphorisms found in his journals. Specialists and readers seeking Nietzsche’s letters, his lectures at Basel, and other writings from his vast Nachlass, will need to supplement the KSA with two additional sources....

  4. (PDF) Were Nietzsche’s Cardinal Ideas – Delusions?

    www.researchgate.net › publication › 277889130_Were

    Nietzsche’s cardinal ideas - God is Dead, Übermensch and Eternal Return of the Same - are approached here from the perspective of psychiatric phenomenology rather than that of philosophy.

  5. Were Nietzsche’s Cardinal Ideas – Delusions?

    www.tandfonline.com › doi › pdf

    Were Nietzsche’s Cardinal Ideas – Delusions? by Eva M. Cybulska Even as ‘a philosopher’ I still did not express my essential thoughts (or ‘delusions’). [Nietzsche, A Letter to Overbeck, April 1888] Abstract Nietzsche’s cardinal ideas - God is Dead, Übermensch and Eternal Return of the Same - are

  6. (PDF) Were Nietzsche's Cardinal Ideas Delusions? | Eva M ...

    www.academia.edu › 3361980 › Were_Nietzsches

    Nietzsche's ideas of Übermensch and God is dead certainly have these eidetic phonemic characteristics; perhaps this is why Nietzsche has sometimes been considered more of a poet than a philosopher.Jasperian understandability as a criterion for delusion can easily become an instrument of alienation.Understanding can be applied to things logical ...

  7. Both of Nietzsche’s projects were lauded by Ritschl, who transferred to the University of Leipzig, and indeed both were published in his still-active journal, Rheinisches Museum für Philologie. On their merits, Nietzsche famously graduated from Leipzig without a formal dissertation and was given appointment at the University of Basel as a ...

  8. Nietzsche’s Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford ...

    plato.stanford.edu › entries › nietzsche-moral-political
    • The Critique of Morality
    • Nietzsche’s Positive Ethical Vision
    • Nietzsche’s Metaethics
    • Nietzsche’s Lack of A Political Philosophy

    1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense

    Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” Heexplicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “highermorality” which would inform the lives of “highermen” (Schacht 1983: 466–469), and, in so doing, he employsthe same German word — Moral, sometimesMoralität — for both what he attacks and what hepraises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existingvalues in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly“moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in thePreface to Da...

    1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS

    MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to humanagents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GMI:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgmentsof MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS aremarked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, thatthey: Thus, the falsity of the picture of human beings would affect theintelligibility of moral judgments in the following three...

    1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS

    All of Nietzsche’s criticisms of the normative component of MPSare parasitic upon one basic complaint — not, as some have held(e.g., Nehamas [1985], Geuss [1997]), the universality of moraldemands, per se, but rather that “the demand of onemorality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228).Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantlysimilar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universalmorality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writesels...

    While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to whichpositive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing ofhigher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about whatkind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to hiscritique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzscheembraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991, Swanton2005) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007).These accounts turn out to overlap — the perfections ofthe latter account are often the virtuesof the former— though the perfectionist account will prove to have certainother advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche’s “positive ethics”confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche’snaturalistic conception of persons and agency — and, inparticular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscioustype-facts that determine their actions — makes it unclear howNietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any...

    Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to theflourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference tothis fact that he proposed to assess their value. Theenterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call themthe ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethicalquestion: what status — metaphysical, epistemological — dothe values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessingvalues’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definitesemantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.)Following Leiter (2019: 49–50), we may distinguish “PrivilegeReadings” of Nietzsche’s metaethics — which claimthat Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is eitherveridical or better justified than its target — from thosereadings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders ofthis latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as aglobal anti-realist — i.e., as claiming that there are no truthsor facts about anything, le...

    When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (1842–1927) firstintroduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche’s ideas duringpublic lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche’svitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (withNietzsche’s subsequent approval) Nietzsche’s“aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche wasprimarily concerned with questions of value and culture(especially the value of morality and its effect on culture), and hisphilosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeplyilliberalone: what matters are great human beings, not the“herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moraland political theory — the premise, in one form or another, ofthe equal worth or dignity of each person — is simply absent inNietzsche’s work. This naturally leads to the question: whatpolitics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiationof the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last thirtyyears years is...

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