From a uniform pride to a uniform of shame: northern Johannesburg, told a group of bewildered learners from the Diepsloot informal settlement during a school tour of the correctional facility last week. â€œA few years ago, I was like you guys, wearing a school uniform - a uniform of pride.
- Education and Training
- Marital Status
- Selection, Ordination, Appointment, and Supervision
- Means of Support
- The Seventeenth Century
- The Eighteenth Century
In Muscovite Russia (the principality of Moscow) in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, there was no systematic educational system, either ecclesiastic or secular. Schooling typically took place in the home of any priest or deacon willing to take in pupils for a fee. Priests' sons commonly studied under their fathers, if not becoming truly literate, at least memorizing enough services in Church Slavonic, the archaic language of the church dating from the tenth century, to perform portions of the liturgy and other services. In the 1490s the learned Novgorod Archbishop Gennadii petitioned the Moscow metropolitan (head of the Muscovite Orthodox Church) and the Moscow grand prince to set up a school system, but nothing came of it. In the Stoglav ('Hundred Chapters'), protocols of the Moscow Church Council of 1551, various remedies were decreed to rectify the situation: schools should be established in the homes of qualified priests, deacons, and readers; bishops should carefully exam...
The question of whether parish priests should be married, single, or celibate is an old and controversial one in the history of Christianity. Byzantine canons stated that a priest could marry, but that he did not have to; in any case, he could marry only before his ordination. Still following Byzantine canons, if a priest's wife died and the priest married for a second time, he could not serve in a church in any capacity whatsoever. A preference for married secular clergy developed in Kievan times (tenth to thirteenth centuries). In Muscovy (fifteenth to seventeenth centuries) it was canonically ruled that secular priests had to be married, that they could marry only once, and that, in order for them to continue serving as parish priests, their wives had to be living. Whatever the rationale behind this requirement (one early sixteenth-century source explains that widower priests could not be trusted not to commit adultery), the Muscovite Church developed the policy that secular prie...
Secular priests were appointed to a parish either by a bishop or by the parishioners. Byzantine canons dictated that only a bishop could appoint a parish priest, but popular selection was tolerated in both Byzantine and Muscovite times. Popular election of parish clergy in the Muscovite church was facilitated by the fact that bishops lacked the administrative machinery and personnel to locate, train, and select qualified candidates, or to check thoroughly the qualifications of candidates proposed by parishioners. Nor were all bishops qualified to judge priest candidates. Not all bishops' assistants were above taking bribes. In addition to bishops' officials, who were typically laymen, priests were overseen by archpriests and senior priests although there is little evidence that the system worked, particularly outside cities. The standard practice for a candidate for the priesthood was apparently the following: first he had to find a willing parish, and then he sought ordination and...
The church did not pay priests—rather, it took money from them. Nor was a uniform policy established of how much parishioners were supposed to pay priests. In practice, priests had to exploit a number of sources of income and support, including the following: a plot of arable land set aside by the parish for the personal use of the priest and his family; income from teaching; donations and offerings in money and in kind from parishioners in return for special services like baptisms and memorial services; marriage fees (although, legally, marriage fees were supposed to be remitted in full to the bishop); fees for consecrating a church (more often beneficial to the clergy of large urban churches than of village parishes); whatever trade privileges and income-producing properties the parish church possessed (here, too, this applied more often to large urban churches or cathedrals than to village churches); and, finally, an annual stipend or subsidy from the grand prince's treasury, or,...
Some improvement in clerical education was achieved in seventeenth-century Muscovy when ecclesiastical schools were established in Moscow and Novgorod. Several members of the Zealots of Piety movement, who sought to reform the church and return it to authentic traditions, were educated secular clergy. In the Church Schism of the seventeenth century, when Old Believersrejected changes introduced by the official church, some Old Believer communities even went without priests because they could not accept priests ordained by the official church. To the extent that the church began publishing service books with some scholarly foundation, priests gained access to texts more standardized than those in previous hand-copied books.
The secular clergy experienced profound changes in the eighteenth century. As government policies, beginning with Peter I the Great (ruled 1682–1725), placed the church increasingly under government control, the secular clergy became virtual state employees, more under the authority of bishops and less dependent on parishes for appointments. For the first time in Russia, also beginning with Peter the Great, an ecclesiastical schooling system was begun throughout the country. One unfortunate aspect of the educational system, however, was the extent to which the curriculum was latinized (because of Ukrainian Orthodox influence) and unrelated to the Russian Church. On the plus side, secular priests received more systematic and formal training than ever before; on the negative side, the Latin-oriented educational system did not effectively train them to conduct services in Church Slavonic. Nevertheless, the secular clergy became something of a hereditary professional estate in the eight...
Freeze, Gregory L.The Russian Levites: Parish Clergy in the Eighteenth Century.Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1977. Kollmann, Jack E., Jr. "TheStoglav Council and Parish Priests."Russian History/Histoire Russe 7, parts 1–2, (1980): 65–91. Pospielovsky, Dimitry.The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia.Crestwood, N.Y., 1998. Jack Kollmann
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According to the 1604 Canons of the Church of England, the clergy were supposed to wear cassock, gown, and cap whilst going about their duties. The cassock was either double or single breasted; buttoned at the neck or shoulder, and was held at the waist with a belt or cincture.
Are school dress codes and uniforms a good idea?The Rev. John Kepler, Calvary Baptist Church, Port Jefferson Station, and chairman of the school committee at the church's North Shore Christian School:
Jul 08, 2013 · Yet over time the desire for the clergy to wear a distinctive uniform returned to the Reformed churches. What they began to do, beginning in the 17 th century as far as I can tell, is to begin to wear a neck scarf, called a cravat, tied around the neck to resemble a yoke. Thus common dignified attire was worn by the pastor, supplementing it ...
Nov 01, 2019 · In later centuries, school uniforms became associated with the upper class. At one of England’s most prestigious schools, Eton, students were required to wear black top hats and tails on and off campus until 1972, when the dress codes began to be relaxed.
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Oct 03, 2013 · Howlette says: “Uniforms help students to prepare for when they leave school and may have to dress smartly or wear a uniform.” Some people believe that a school uniform can improve learning by ...