How did Angola gain independence from the Portuguese?
- The Portuguese therefore withdrew from Angola in November 1975 without formally handing power to any movement, and nearly all the European settlers fled the country. The MPLA, in control of the capital city, declared itself the government of independent Angola and managed to win recognition from many African countries.
Mar 23, 2018 · The new government immediately began plans to grant Angolan independence. Although the war stopped immediately, it was not until January 1975 that the Portuguese government and the separatist parties signed a peace accord. On 11 November 1975 Angola was granted independence. However, the country soon fell into a civil war that continued until 2002.
Tue, 11.11.1975 Angola Gains Its Independence From Portugal *On this date in 1975, Angola gained independence from Portugal. This repaired the invasion of the 1884 Berlin Conference, the high point of white European competition for territory in Africa, a process commonly known as the Scramble for Africa.
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Angola becomes independent after 14 years of armed resistance to Portuguese colonial rule. The three major movements fighting the war, the Movimiento Popular de Liberación de Angola, (MPLA), the Front for the National Liberation of Angola (FLNA) and National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) signed the Alvor agreement in January 1975.
- Background of The Territory
- Pre-War Events
- Course of The Conflict
- Foreign Influence
- See Also
- External Links
In 1482, the Kingdom of Portugal's caravels, commanded by navigator Diogo Cão, arrived in the Kingdom of Kongo. Other expeditions followed, and close relations were soon established between the two kingdoms. The Portuguese brought firearms, many other technological advances, and a new religion, Christianity. In return, the King of the Congo offered...
The Portuguese forces engaged in the conflict included mainly the Armed Forces, but also the security and paramilitary forces.
The international politics of the late 1940s and 1950s was marked by the Cold War and the wind of changein the European colonies in Asia and Africa. In October 1954, the Algerian War was initiated by a series of explosions in Algiers. This conflict would lead to the presence of more than 400,000 French military in Algeria until its end in 1962. Foreseeing a similar conflict in its African territories, the Portuguese military paid acute attention to this war, sending observers and personnel to...
Internal politics and rise of Angolan nationalism
The Portuguese Colonial Act – passed on 13 June 1933 – defined the relationship between the Portuguese overseas territories and the metropole, until being repulsed in 1951. The Colonial Act reflected an imperialistic view of the overseas territories typical among the European colonial powers of the late 1920s and 1930s. During the period in which it was in force, the Portuguese overseas territories lost the status of "provinces" that they have had since 1834, becoming designated "colonies", w...
The Baixa de Cassanje revolt
Although usually considered as an event that predates the Angolan War of Independence, some authors consider the Baixa de Cassanje revolt (also known as the "Maria's War") as the initial event of the Conflict. It was a labour conflict, not related with the claiming for the independence of Angola. The Baixa do Cassanje was a rich agricultural region of the Malanje District, bordering the ex-Belgian Congo, with approximately the size of Mainland Portugal, which was the origin of most of the cot...
Beginning of the conflict
On 15 March 1961, the Union of Peoples of Angola (UPA), under the leadership of Holden Roberto, launched an incursion into northern Angola from its base in the Congo-Léopoldville (ex-Belgian Congo), leading 4000 to 5000 militants. His forces took farms, government outposts, and trading centers, killing and mutilating officials and civilians, most of them Ovimbundu "contract workers" from the Central Highlands. It was the start of the Angolan War of Independence and of the wider Portuguese Ove...
Opening of the Eastern Front
In May 1966 Daniel Chipenda, then a member of MPLA, established the Frente Leste (Eastern Front), significantly expanding the MPLA's reach in Angola. When the EF[clarification needed]collapsed, Chipenda and Neto each blamed the other's factions. UNITA carried out its first attack on 25 December 1966, preventing trains from passing through the Benguela railway at Teixeira de Sousa on the border with Zambia. UNITA derailed the railway twice in 1967, angering the Zambian government, which export...
Portuguese re-focus to the East
The MPLA began forming squadrons of 100 to 145 militants in 1971. These squadrons, armed with 60 mm and 81 mm mortars, attacked Portuguese outposts. The Portuguese conducted counter-insurgency sweeps against MPLA forces in 1972, destroying some MPLA camps. Additionally, the South African Defence Force engaged the MPLA forces in Moxico in February 1972, destroying the Communist presence. The Portuguese Armed Forces organised a successful campaign to control and pacify the entire Eastern Front...
The situation of the Portuguese in their overseas province of Angola soon became a matter of concern for a number of foreign powers particularly her military allies in NATO. The United States, for example, was concerned with the possibility of a Marxistregime being established in Luanda. That is why it started supplying weapons and ammunition to the UPA, which meanwhile grew considerably and merged with the Democratic Party of Angola to form the FNLA. The leaders of the FNLA were, however, no...
Rhodesia and South Africa
Aside from the US, two other nations became involved in this war. These were Rhodesia and South Africa, both of which were ruled by the white minority. Their white-elected governments were concerned about their own future in the case of a Portuguese defeat. Rhodesia and South Africa initially limited their participation to shipments of arms and supplies. However, by 1968 the South Africans began providing Alouette III helicopters with crews to the Portuguese Air Force (FAP), and finally sever...
During the late 1960s the USSR also became involved in the war in Angola, albeit almost exclusively via the MPLA. While the FNLA received only very limited arms shipments from the US, and the UNITA was getting hardly any support from outside the country, the Marxist MPLA developed very close relations with Moscow and was soon to start receiving significant shipments of arms via Tanzaniaand Zambia. In 1969 the MPLA agreed with the USSR that in exchange for arms and supplies delivered to it the...
As soon as the agreement between the MPLA and Portugal for the transfer of power became known to the public, a mass exodus began. Over 300,000 people left Angola by November, most of them evacuated aboard TAP Boeing 707 aircraft. The British Royal Air Force also lent a hand, sending Vickers VC10 airliners to evacuate about 6,000 additional refugees...(in Portuguese) Guerra Colonial: 1961–1974 – State-supported historical site of the Portuguese Colonial War (Portugal)U.S. Involvement in Angolan Conflict from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archive
- 4 February 1961 – 25 April 1974 (cease fire), (13 years, 2 months and 3 weeks), 11 November 1975 (independence)
- Portuguese military victory, MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA political victory, Ceasefire after the Carnation Revolution, Alvor Agreement and Angolan independence in 1975, Start of the Angolan Civil War
Although this region is situated geographically within the country of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Portugal gained control of it at the end of the 19th century. Cabinda was specifically made a part of Angola in 1975, but the Angolan government had to contend with independence movements there until the late 1980s.