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  1. History of Kraków - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Krakow

    Situated on the Vistula river (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. It was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Kraków from 1846 to 1918, and the capital of Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1999.

  2. Kraków - Wikipedia › wiki › Kraków

    Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, [7] its Old Town was declared the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the world.

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  4. History of Kraków - Past and present of Kraków › history-of-krakow
    • Origins
    • Kraków as Capital of Poland
    • Economic and Social Decline
    • Kraków During The Republic of Poland

    Archaeological records show that the site where Kraków is currently located, near Wawel Hill and Vistula River, was inhabited since the Stone Age. During the sixth century, the West Slavic tribe called Vistulans or Vistulanians settled on Wawel Hill. Three centuries later, in the ninth century, while Saint Methodius was converting the Slav population of the area, it is believed that the tribe of the Vistulans had a legendary ruler Krakus who is responsible for the foundation of Kraków. The first documented appearance of the city’s name dates from 966, when a Sephardi visitor described it as animportant commercial center. It is also believed that the Vistulans are the first Slav people in the area to form a state and that Poland as a country could also have been shaped by the Vistulans. What is for sure is that Kraków was part of Poland in the tenth century and was capital of a voivodeship, an area administered by a Governor. During the eleventh century, the focal point of Christiani...

    In 1038, Casimir I the Restorer moved the capital of Poland to Kraków. The Wawel Cathedralwas first constructed in the eleventh century. Krakow became capital of Poland in 1038 and remained the political front of the country until 1596. In 1596, Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1587 to 1632, transferred the capital to Warsaw. During the thirteenth century, the city was destroyed by various Mongol invasions, the first in 1241 and then eighteen years later, in 1259. Kraków was rebuilt practically the same as it had been. Kraków was deeply influenced by the Germans during this period, and in 1257, the king gave the city internal autonomy based on the Magdeburg rights. A few decades later, in 1291, the Polish population elected Wenceslaus II as king of the country. He had been monarch of Bohemia since 1278 and was proclaimed king of Poland in 1300. Since then, Kraków depended on a Czech dynasty. Between 1311 and 1312, the inhabitants of Kraków rebelled...

    From 1648 to 1720, the Commonwealth was the setting of numerous riots for the distribution of land and power. Bohdan Khmelnytsky, a Ukrainian Hetman (Head of State) rose against the Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth and the Vasa dynasty. He then created a state governed by the Cossacks of Ukraine. When the Vasa dynasty fell, a Russian army landed in Poland and the Cossacks accepted the supremacy of the Tsar. Then, the Swedish invaded the Commonwealthand pillaged Kraków and other cities, treating the citizens with violence and intolerance. After the numerous internal uprisings and the Russian and Swedish invasions, Poland was extremely weakened and reduced to ruins. Russia annexed Ukraine, which had been Polish until then. After Ukraine was conquered, there was a Polish national movement which led to the coronation of John III Sobieski in 1674. He is renowned for defeating the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1638. The Commonwealth stabilization did not last long and the kingdom was par...

    During World War I, Kraków was the political centre of Poland. The provisional government established a Provisional Council of State in the city. The Germans made the city their headquarters and created a pro-German Polish state. After World War I, during the negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Poland finally regained its independence. During World War II, Nazi Germany created the Kraków Ghetto. Nearly 80,000 Polish Jews had lived in Kraków since the thirteenth century. Kraków was freed by the Soviet troops at the end of World War II and would remain under Soviet control until the Soviet Union collapsed. Karol Wojtyla, Archbishop of Kraków, was made Pope in 1978 and would remain head of the Roman Catholic Church until 2005. Nowadays, the former capital of Poland is a pilgrimage site for the Polish citizens. Kraków is a modern metropolis and the second largest city in Poland. It is also one of the most-visited cities in Europe. Miraculously, it wasn’t gravely damaged...

  5. Polish History – Chronological History of Poland › poland › poland-history
    • Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Ages
    • The Modern Age
    • The 20th Century

    There is a legend about the three forefathers of Slavonic nations. There were three brothers Lech, Czech and Rus who wandered with their kin tribes away from the original Slavonic settlements in the present area of Ukraine (between the Vistula and the Dnepr rivers). Rus moved to the east while the other two wandered with their people westwards. Lech stayed in the lowlands and established his town near a white eagle’s nest (the white eagle is the country’s coat of arms). Czech went more to the south. Slavonic tribes came to Poland in the 6th century AD. The first town of the Polan tribe was Gniezno, along with Poznan, the oldest capital of Poland. It was there, where the first royal dynasty resided, the Piasts, who drew their pedigree from the mythical Piast, a wheelwright who founded a dynasty that ruled until 1370. The Polan tribe dwelled in the western areas of today’s Poland, in Wielkopolska, whereas Krakow was the central settlement of the Wislan tribe. 966Mieszko I, (a member o...

    1525The Teutonic Order is secularised and became the vassal of Poland. One century later the Polish king grants the Brandenburg dukes the right to accede in Prussia, which led to the establishment of an enormous Prussian power two centuries later. 1543The Copernican Revolution. Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopernik) published De Revolutionibus, he proposed the heliocentric theory, that the Earth rotates on an axis, and goes round the sun once in a year. In the 16th century it was still widely accepted that the Earth was the centre of the universe. The heliocentric theory was later proved by Galileo Galilei. 1550 (approx)Gdansk has more than 30,000 inhabitants, Krakow has 15,000 inhabitants and Poznan 5,000. Wroclaw (Breslau) has 20,000 but Silesia belonged to the Czech Crown at that time. Warsaw was still only a small capital of the Mazovia province. The majority of foreign trade was done via Free Town of Gdansk and around 70% of Polish exports constituted of grains (...

    1791The New Constitution was (May 3) granted by King Stanislaus Poniatowski. It was second achievement of such kind. Immediately after the American constitution, the throne was made hereditary, and the liberum veto abolished. 1794The Kosciuszko rebellion: Tadeusz Kosciusko had tough fights against Russians and Prussians. The following year Warsaw and Krakow were lost to Russia and Austria. This is known as the Third Partition of Poland, Poland was wiped off the map. 1807Napoleon Bonaparte’s first invasion of Poland. Poles saw hope in Napoleon and supported him during his attack on Russia. Napoleon becomes enamored to Maria Walewska in Warsaw. A year afterwards a semi-independent Duchy of Warsaw proclaimed 1810Fryderyk Chopin, the best known Polish piano composer, was born in Zelazowa Wola. After 1830 he had to spend last eighteen years of his life in exile. 1815After Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo came the period of the “Holy Alliance” between Russia, Prussia and Austria. This associ...

    1914First World War begins. Most fights take place on the eastern front fought on the territory of the future Poland (Galicia). 1918In November Poland was proclaimed as an independent country. Marshall Józef Pilsudski becomes “chief of the state”. The young state has unstable boundaries and a series of wars, unrest and uprisings with neighbouring countries, Bolshevik Ukraine, Germany, Lithuania and Czechoslovakia takes place as there was a general trend to make countries as big as possible (historical and national principles). In 1920, the “Warsaw miracle” took place, as the Polish army stopped the advance of the Bolshevik army into central Europe. Poland gains big territories in the east. Later it occupies Vilnius (Wilno) and halves the Austrian part of Silesia (the other half acceded to Czechoslovakia). 1921The Modern Polish constitution was formed. Poland was a republic (until 1926), the national bank reformed, mining was developed in Silesia and the construction of the first Pol...

  6. Austrian Krakow | Habsburg Empire | Krakow during the ... › krakow › articles

    Above: Emperor Franz Joseph enters Krakow in 1880. Following the partition of 1772, Austria's Polish gains became the province of Galicia, with Lemberg (formerly Lwow) as its capital.

  7. Deluge (history) - Wikipedia › wiki › Deluge_(history)

    The ancient capital of Poland was captured after a siege, on October 13, 1655. With the three most populated and best developed Polish provinces in his hands (Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and Mazovia ), Charles Gustav decided to head back northwards to Royal Prussia , which was defended by the Voivode of Malbork , Jakub Wejher .

  8. Poland - Wikipedia › wiki › Poland

    Poland (Polish: Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔˈspɔlita ˈpɔlska] ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces , covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. [8]

  9. Partitions of Poland - Wikipedia › wiki › Partitions_of_Poland

    The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

  10. History of Poland | Britannica › topic › history-of-Poland

    Other articles where History of Poland is discussed: Poland: The early state: The terms Poland and Poles appear for the first time in medieval chronicles of the late 10th century. The land that the Poles, a West Slavic people, came to inhabit was covered by forests with small areas under cultivation where clans grouped themselves into numerous tribes. The…

  11. Polish Americans - History, The first poles in america ... › Pa-Sp › Polish-Americans

    Liberation, however, did not mean freedom, for after the war Poland fell under the Soviet sphere; a communist state was set up and Poland once again had become a fiefdom to a foreign power. In 1956 Poland's workers went on a general strike in protest to Moscow's heavy-handed domination.