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  1. Karlsruhe - Wikipedia › wiki › Karlsruhe
    • Geography
    • History
    • Population
    • Main Sights
    • Government
    • Economy
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    • Jewish Community
    • Famous People
    • Notable Contemporary Entertainment and Sports Figures

    Karlsruhe lies completely to the east of the Rhine, and almost completely on the Upper Rhine Plain. It contains the Turmberg in the east, and also lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The city centre is about 7.5 km (4.7 mi) from the river, as measured from the Marktplatz (Market Square). Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to eventually join the Rhine. The city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m (near the communications tower in the suburb of Grünwettersbach). Its geographical coordinates are WikiMiniAtlas49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N 8.400°E / 49.000; 8.400; the 49th parallel runs through the city centre, which puts it at the same latitude as much of the Canada–United States b...

    According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlachwoke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims that he built the new palace to find peace from his wife. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach. The founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, and, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 1822, the Ständehauswas the first parliament building in a German state. In the aftermath of the democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected there. Karlsruhe was visited by Thomas Jefferson during his time as the American envoy to France; when Pierre Charles L'Enfant was planning the layout of Washington, D.C., Jefferson p...

    The following list shows the most significant groups of foreigners residing in the city of Karlsruhe by country.

    The Stadtgarten is a recreational area near the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and was rebuilt for the 1967 Federal Garden Show (Bundesgartenschau). It is also the site of the Karlsruhe Zoo. The Durlacher Turmberg has a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a former keepdating back to the 13th century. The city has two botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe, which forms part of the Palace complex, and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe, which is maintained by the university. The Marktplatz has a stone pyramid marking the grave of the city's founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe.The city is nicknamed the "fan city" (die Fächerstadt) because of its design layout, with straight streets radiating fan-like from the Palace. The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of architecture; the adjacent Schlossgartenincludes the Botanical Garden with a palm, cactus and orchid house, and walking paths through the woods to the n...


    Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came to Karlsruhe after World War II, when the provinces of Baden and Württemberg were merged. Stuttgart, capital of Württemberg, became the capital of the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 and Baden-Württembergin 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated to Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applie...

    Public health

    There are four hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and the Diakonissenkrankenhaus, connected to the Catholic and Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according to state hospital demand planning.[citation needed]

    Germany's largest oil refinery is located in Karlsruhe, at the western edge of the city, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's cities in order to promote high tech industries; today, about 20% of the region's jobs are in research and development. EnBW, one of Germany's biggest electric utility companies and a revenue of 19.2 billion € in 2012,is headquartered in the city.

    The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the city's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram routes and a network of bus routes. All city areas can be reached round the clock by tram and a night bus system. The Turmbergbahn funicular railway, to the east of the city centre, is also operated by the VBK. The VBK is also a partner, with the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft and Deutsche Bahn, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail system that serves a larger area around the city. This system makes it possible to reach other towns in the region, like Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, and even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right from the city centre. The Stadtbahn is known for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train tracks, to achieve a more effective and attractive public transportsystem. Karlsruhe is connected via road and rail, with Autobahn and Intercity Express connections going to...

    Jews settled in Karlsruhe soon after its founding. They were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to settlers, without discrimination as to creed. Official documents attest the presence of several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717. A year later the city council addressed to the margrave a report in which a question was raised as to the proportion of municipal charges to be borne by the newly arrived Jews, who in that year formed an organized congregation, with Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen of Metzat its head. A document dated 1726 gives the names of twenty-four Jews who had taken part in an election of municipal officers. As the city grew, permission to settle there became less easily obtained by Jews, and the community developed more slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden to leave the city on Sundays and Christian holidays, or to go out of their houses during church services, but they were exempted from service by court summonses on Sabbaths. T...

    Karl Benz (1844–1929), mechanical engineer and inventor of the first automobile as well as the founder of Benz & Co., Daimler-Benz, and Mercedes-Benz (now part of Daimler AG). He was born in the Ka...
    Siegfried Buback, (1920–1977), then-Attorney General of Germany who fell victim to terrorists of the Rote Armee Fraktionin April 1977 in Karlsruhe
    Christa Bauch, female bodybuilder
    Walther Bensemann, one of the founders of the first southern German soccer club Karlsruher FV and later one of the founders of DFB and the founder of Kicker, Germany's leading soccer magazine
    Oliver Bierhoff, (born 1968), retired football striker and former national team captain for the Germany and Italian Serie A clubs Udinese, A.C. Milan and Chievo; currently working as the German nat...
    • 115 m (377 ft)
    • Germany
  2. The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, constructed between 1800 and 1804, is the first Anglican cathedral to have been built outside the British Isles. Located in the heart of Quebec’s historic district, it is a source of inspiration for visitors from around the world.

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  4. History of Quebec - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Quebec
    • Pre-Columbian
    • Early French Exploration
    • New France
    • British Conquest
    • British Rule
    • Constitutional Act
    • 1840–1866
    • Federal Dominion
    • Depression, War and Postwar: 1929–1959
    • Quebec's Quiet Revolution

    Aboriginal settlements were located across the area of present-day Quebec before the arrival of Europeans. In the northernmost areas of the province, Inuit communities can be found. Other aboriginal communities belong to the following First Nations: The aboriginal cultures of present-day Quebec are diverse, with their own languages, way of life, economies, and religious beliefs. Before contact with Europeans, they did not have a written language, and passed their history and other cultural knowledge along to each generation through oral tradition. Today around three-quarters of Quebec's aboriginal populations lives in small communities scattered throughout the rural areas of the province, with some living on reserves. Jacques Cartier sailed into the St. Lawrence River in 1534 and established an ill-fated colony near present-day Quebec City at the site of Stadacona, a village of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians. Linguists and archaeologists have determined these people were distinct from...

    In 1508, only 16 years after the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, Thomas Auber, who was likely part of a fishing trip near Newfoundland, brought back a few Amerindians to France. This indicates that in the early 16th century, French navigators ventured in the gulf of the St. Lawrence, along with the Basques and the Spaniardswho did the same. Also, Jacques Cartier wrote in his journal that when he made his first contacts with the Amerindians (St. Lawrence Iroquoians), that they came to him in their boats to offer him furs. All these facts and several other details encourage us to believe that this was not the first meeting of Amerindians and Europeans.[citation needed]

    Modern Quebec was part of the territory of New France, the general name for the North American possessions of France until 1763. At its largest extent, before the Treaty of Utrecht, this territory included several colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, and Louisiana. The borders of these colonies were not precisely defined, and were open on the western side, as the maps below show: 1. 1592–1594: A map of New France made by cartographersJan Doetecom, Petrus Plancius, and Cornelis Claesz. 2. 1612:A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain. 3. 1730:New France, also referred to as Canada on the map.

    In the middle of the 18th century, British North America had grown to be close to a full-fledged independent country, something they would actually become a few decades later, with more than 1 million inhabitants. Meanwhile, New France was still seen mostly as a cheap source of natural resources for the metropolis, and had only 60,000 inhabitants. Nevertheless, New France was territorially larger than the Thirteen Colonies, but had a population less than 1/10 the size. There was warfare along the borders, with the French supporting Indian raids into the American colonies. The earliest battles of the French and Indian War occurred in 1754 and soon widened into the worldwide Seven Years' War. The territory of New France at that time included parts of present-day Upstate New York, and a series of battles were fought there. The French military enjoyed early successes in these frontier battles, gaining control over several strategic points in 1756 and 1757. The British sent substantial m...

    Royal Proclamation

    British rule under Royal Governor James Murray was benign, with the French Canadians guaranteed their traditional rights and customs. The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 united three Quebec districts into the Province of Quebec. It was the British who were the first to use the name "Quebec" to refer to a territory beyond Quebec City. The British tolerated the Catholic Church, and protected the traditional social and economic structure of Quebec. The people responded with one of the highest...

    Quebec Act

    The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec. Among other components, this act restored the use of the French civil law for private matters while maintaining the use of the English common law for public administration (including criminal prosecution), replaced the oath of allegiance so that it no longer made reference to the Protestant faith, and guaranteed free practice of the Catholicfaith. The purpose of thi...

    American Revolutionary War

    When the American Revolutionary War broke out in early 1775, Quebec became a target for American forces, that sought to liberate the French population there from British rule. In September 1775 the Continental Army began a two-pronged invasion, with one army capturing Montreal while another traveled through the wilderness of what is now Maine toward Quebec City. The two armies joined forces, but were defeated in the Battle of Quebec, in which the American General Richard Montgomery was slain....

    The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided Quebec into Upper Canada (the part of present-day Ontario south of Lake Nipissing plus the current Ontario shoreline of Georgian Bay and Lake Superior) and Lower Canada (the southern part of present-day Quebec). Newly arrived English-speaking Loyalist refugees had refused to adopt the Quebec seigneurial system of land tenure, or the French civil law system, giving the British reason to separate the English-speaking settlements from the French-speaking territory as administrative jurisdictions. Upper Canada's first capital was Newark (present-day Niagara-on-the-Lake); in 1796, it was moved to York (now Toronto). The new constitution, primarily passed to answer the demands of the Loyalists, created a unique situation in Lower Canada. The Legislative Assembly, the only elected body in the colonial government, was continually at odds with the Legislative and Executive branches appointed by the governor. When, in the early 19th century, the Parti ca...

    Union Act

    Lord Durham recommended that Upper Canada and Lower Canada be united, in order to make the francophone population of Lower Canada a minority within the united territory and weaken its influence. Durham expressed his objectives in plain terms. His recommendation was followed; the new seat of government was located in Montreal, with the former Upper Canada being referred to as "Canada West" and the former Lower Canada being referred to as "Canada East". The Act of Union 1840 formed the Province...


    In the 1820s and 1830s, rapid demographic growth made access to land in Lower Canada increasingly difficult for young people. Crop failures and political repression in 1838-1839 placed an additional strain on the agricultural sector in the southern part of the colony. Only slowly did French Canadian farmers adapt to competition and new economic realities. According to some contemporary observers, their farming methods were outdated.About this time the textile industry in New England experienc...

    In the decades immediately before Canadian Confederation in 1867, French-speaking Quebeckers, known at that time as Canadiens, remained a majority within Canada East. Estimates of their proportion of the population between 1851 and 1861 are 75% of the total population, with around 20% of the remaining population largely composed of English-speaking citizens of British or Irish descent.From 1871 to 1931, the relative size of the French-speaking population stayed much the same, rising to a peak of 80.2% of Quebec's population in 1881. The proportion of citizens of British descent declined slightly in contrast, from a peak of 20.4% of the population in 1871, to 15% by 1931. Other minorities made up the remainder of the population of the province. After several years of negotiations, in 1867 the British Parliament passed the British North America Acts, by which the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the Dominion of Canada. Canada East became the Province o...

    Great Depression

    The worldwide Great Depression that began in 1929 hit Quebec hard, as exports, prices, profits and wages plunged and unemployment soared to 30%, and even higher in lumbering and mining districts. Politically there was a move to the right, as Quebec's leaders noted that across the globe the failures attributed to capitalism and democracy had led to the spread of socialism, totalitarianism, and Civil War. The Spanish Civil Warin particular alarmed devout Catholics, who demanded that Canada keep...

    Second World War

    Prosperity returned with the Second World War, as demand soared for the province's manpower, raw materials and manufactures.140,000 young men, both Francophone and Anglophone, rushed to enlist, although English was the dominant language in all the services and essential for promotion. Duplessis expected to ride antiwar sentiment to victory when he called an election in the fall of 1939. He miscalculated as the Liberals scored a landslide, with 70 seats to only 14 for the Union nationale. Cana...

    Maurice Duplessis

    Duplessis returned as premier in the 1944 election, and held power without serious opposition for the next fifteen years, until his death, winning elections in 1948, 1952 and 1956. He became known simply as le Chef ("the boss"). He championed rural areas, provincial rights, and anti-Communism, and opposed the trade unions, modernizers and intellectuals. He worked well with the powerful Anglo businessmen who controlled most of the economy. A highly controversial figure even today, Duplessis an...

    During the 1960s, the Quiet Revolution ushered in an array of socio-political transformations, from secularism and the welfare state to a specifically Québécois national identity. The baby boomgeneration embraced the changes that liberalized social attitudes in the province. The 1960s were largely a time of optimism in Quebec. Expo 67 marked Montreal's pinnacle as Canada's largest and most important city and prompted the construction of what is now Parc Jean Drapeau and the Montreal Metro. In 1962, the mayor of Montreal, Jean Drapeau (the man who later was behind Expo 67 and the '76 Olympics projects) instigated the construction of the Metro (subway). The first phase of the subway was completed in 1966. These mega-projects came in the same era as Canada's Confederation centennial celebrations in 1967, when a wave of patriotism swept through most of Canada. During the Quiet Revolution, the government of Quebec invested heavily in the province's industries. A large component of this w...

  5. 1982 - Wikipedia › wiki › 1982

    1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade. Calendar year.

  6. List of cathedrals in Canada - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_cathedrals_in_Canada

    Cathedral Church of St. Michael and All Angels, in Kelowna (Anglican) St. Saviour's Pro-Cathedral, in Nelson (Anglican) St. Saviour's was the Cathedral for the Diocese of Kootenay until 1987, when St. Michael and All Angels' was consecrated by the Rt. Rev'd R.E.F. Berry as the new Cathedral for the Diocese.

  7. Université Laval - Wikipedia › wiki › University_of_Laval

    Université Laval is a public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.The University was founded by royal charter issued by Queen Victoria in 1852, with roots in the founding of the Séminaire de Québec in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, making it the oldest centre of higher education in Canada and the first North American institution to offer higher education in French.

  8. Aug 01, 2018 · The number and quality of schools for higher technical education therefore had to increase. Polytechnic schools often originated from predecessors, as was the case with the first German technical university in Karlsruhe , founded by the engineer Johann Gottfried Tulla (1770–1828) and the architect Friedrich Weinbrenner (1766–1826).

  9. Quebec | The Canadian Encyclopedia › en › article
    • Geography
    • People
    • History: from New France to Confederation
    • Economy
    • Industry
    • Government and Politics
    • Cultural Life

    The province of Quebec is composed of three of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These regions are the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Canadian Shield and the Appalachian region. The St. Lawrence Lowlands is the most fertile and developed region. The majority of the population of Quebec lives here, mainly between Montreal and Quebec City. The Canadian Shield covers most of Quebec from approximately 80 km north of the St. Lawrence River valley up to the Ungava region. It is a vast region composed of thousands of lakes and thousands of square kilometres of forested area. On the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, between the Richelieu River and the Gaspé Peninsula, is the Quebec part of the Appalachian mountain chain which extends from Gaspésouth to Alabama. Within the province’s three physiographic regions are four distinct zones with different landscapes. These are the arctic tundra, the taiga, the boreal forest and the temperate forest (see Vegetation Regions; Forest Regions). All...

    Urban Centres Montréal is the economic and cultural centre of the province. In 2016, it was Quebec’s largest urban centre with a population of 1,704,694, or 21 per cent of the Quebec population. Factoring in the Montréal metropolitan area, this number rises to 4,098,927, or 50 per cent of the Quebec population. After Toronto, Montréal is the second largest agglomeration in Canada. It is the largest francophone city in North America. The province’s capital is Quebec City. In 2016, the city’s population was 531,902. The Historic District of Old Québec was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. The next largest cities, in descending order of population, are Laval, Gatineau,Longueuil, Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Lévis, Trois-Rivières and Terrebonne. Labour Force In 2016, the sectors employing the most people in Quebec were health care and social assistance, retail and manufacturing. The unemployment rate was 7.2 per cent, or just below the national average. Approximately 36 per cent o...

    French colonization started when Jacques Cartier landed in Gaspé in 1534. One year later the French came into contact with Iroquoian villages on both shores of the St. Lawrence River, for example at Stadacona near the location of the future Quebec City and Hochelaga (the future Montréal). But the real beginning of French colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley was in 1608, when Samuel de Champlain established a fort at Cap Diamant, the site of Quebec City today. By the beginning of the 17th century, the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) had mysteriously disappeared from the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. The population of the Innunation (Montagnais-Naspaki) nation on the north shore was then around 4,000 people. In 1666 the first census revealed a colonial, non-native population of only 3,215 people. The French North American empire expanded considerably during the 17th century. In 1672 and 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi River and, in 1682, Robert...

    The economic history of Quebec can be divided into five major periods. The first period started with the arrival of the French and lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The main economic activity was the fur trade. Under the mercantilist system imposed by France, colonies ‒ including New France ‒ exported their natural resources and in return received manufactured goods from the metropolis. The fur tradewas the heart of New France's economy. Other economic activities in the colony that might compete with the home country were discouraged. During the second period (1713-1812), the economy of New France remained dominated by the fur trade although an attempt was made to diversify the economy by improving farming and by encouraging projects like the Forges Saint-Maurice. The Conquest of 1760 did not fundamentally change the mercantilist system, at least for a while, as Britain was also a protectionist country. During the third period (1812-67), wheat and timber (see Timber Trade...

    The principal industries in Quebec are manufacturing, generation of electric power, mining, pulp and paper. The Quebec manufacturing sector represents 25 per cent of the Canadian total. Five groups of industries account for 65 per cent of the factories and over 50 per cent of the manufacturing jobs: clothing and textiles, food and beverages, paper and related products, metal products and wood products. Forestry Quebec has the second-largest area of forest land in Canada after the Northwest Territories. Most of this land, 825 000 km2 of forests, is provincially owned, although many land claims by Aboriginal peoples are currently being contested in the courts. Accessible productive forests total 540 000 km2, three-quarters of which is located in the Saguenay‒Lac-Saint-Jean, Abitibi and North Shore regions. Around 33 million m3 of wood is cut each year, 80 per cent of which is conifer. Most of the cut wood is used for lumber and pulp manufacturing. For the last 20 years, a vast refores...

    The political institutions of the province of Quebec have not fundamentally changed since 1867. Initially a French colony, Quebec was later administered directly by British authorities. In 1841 it became part of a legislative union, and in 1867 a member of the Canadian federation. In 1982 Quebec did not sign Canada's repatriated Constitution, although it did sign an accord in 1987 to enter into Canada's constitutional agreement (see Meech Lake Accord; Meech Lake Accord: Document) and another, the so-called Charlottetown Accord (see Charlottetown Accord: Document), in 1992. However, neither of these was ratified and the latter was overwhelmingly rejected in a national referendum. The evolution of Quebec's institutions has thus not been marked by any legal discontinuity. The most important institutions are the central political institutions. Provincial Government Quebec, like all constitutional regimes with a British tradition, has no rigid division of legislative and executive functi...

    Technically, Quebec is a province. Others claim that Quebec is a nation in the sense that it is the home of the French-speaking nation in North America and other Québécois of non-French origins. Others, although they are more and more a rarity, believe that Quebec is the territory in which the most important component of the French-Canadian nation resides. Arts French-Canadian cultural roots can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century in literature, painting and sculpture. Debate about the significance of the arts in the francophone community has been passionate since the 19th century. In literature, Father Henri-Raymond Casgrain in the second half of the 19th century and Bishop Camille Roy in the first half of the 20th century both sought to create literature that would reflect what they defined as the essence of French-Canadian society. They were challenged by the universalists who wanted a universal literature. After the Quiet Revolution, many writers, despite their claims...

  10. Congregation of Holy Cross - Wikipedia › wiki › Congregation_of_Holy_Cross

    The Congregation of Holy Cross or Congregatio a Sancta Cruce (CSC) is a Catholic congregation of missionary priests and brothers founded in 1837 by Blessed Basil Moreau, in Le Mans, France. Father Moreau also founded the Marianites of Holy Cross, now divided into three independent congregations of sisters .